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J. & J. II \.I
PEn, Kc,v-\'rork, have in prc
8, and 
will shortly puhlish, the rplnaining YOIUlIles of the 
Family Library, ,vhich ,vill br cxC'cutcd in strict 
uniformity of style ,vith the prescl1" part of the 

By the Rev. II. II. :
\lilman. In 3 vols. 18mo. 
Illustrated "rith original )laps and 'V' oodcuts. 

The (oHowing aff> hut n few or tll(> ß1lmf'rou!1 t('!'timollif'
 or nppro- 
bation wl1Ïch :\lr.l\Iilmau's IIi:nory of tlaP .Jews hag re{:eiv{'d in Ellrupe. 
· The Ed
ton have teen most rortunate in en
 on this "ork the pen of a Khol:\F 
ooth clU!ical and scriptural, and 10 ele
nt aM po\\ erful a "Titer, u the Poetry Profe:;;;;' 
Few theol
ical works of thi. order have ap
 either in oun elr In UlY other lan
To the Christian reader or every a,,- and ..x-and we may add of every If''Ct-it will be a 
IOUrce or the PUl'f'.8t deli
ht, instruction, and comfort; and or the infiðt"ls "ho o{>eD it 
merely that they may not remain in i
rance or a "ork placed by gener.1.l M
nt ID the 
rank or an E..,.lish cla!WIic. is there not e\ery reaac)ß to hope that mélny will lay it down in 
a far different mood ?"-.BlacJrwood'. ltfoga.=i7l
"Though the subject Is trite, the manner or treatiu?: it ÎSluch u to ronamand our deepetd 
attention. While the .....ork has troth and I!mplidty enfJJ
h to fascinate a child, it is 
'\fitten with a p1uterliness or the subject and an elt'
nce br composition that WIJI pleue 
the mOlt refined a.l1,l fastidious reader. "-Ediu.b. Satu.rday'l Pod. 
" It cannot help being one or th
 mo5t deep.. interestinc works of the day: It .. In v*. 
Jaa1tle to the Clmltiaa scbolar."-Dirm. Jourl1uJ.. 
" The most popul:u- history or the lIOns or brut that hu hith
rto bfor'n published. The 
bighest enconiulIJ we can pass upon the wort unoler notit'e il to u
 ita purchaøe J from a 
tion of its Itriking and penn anent wortb."-.&rluhire Chronicle. 
"The work is w.dmirably wpted ror tbe instruction of youth."-SMßkld CmlTmll. 
"\Ve are acquainted \\ ith no work which 've can more he
rtily J'f'COmmend tl) ml1' 
bders; to the youlI.f"f'r part or them 
pecwlYJ we are lure it willl,rove a Dlost accet,table 
present."-Litera71l Ga:t:.lte. 
"The namti\'e of the various anJ highly interestin
 e\"E'nts in that period flow! ('In In 'i 
chaste style; and a t.I:orou
h knowledge of his subjpct .. e
it!ent in e\,,('n' 
e. The work 
is spirited, well arr:\ltged, aoo full of information, aJ.d or a wise añd ,v
n cultivated 
religlOUI spirit."
II It is not too much to say, th
t to the Christian reader, or every 3!!e anJ lex. it wHl be 
a rJurce or the pureat delight, imtruction, and comfort."-Corh .""IJf:1hern. Rrpt:Jrkr. 
" It is one of thme rare pu},t:
tiom ,,.hi( b unitt" all the attr.l.ction or novelty, and all tJïe 
beatlties of finished a:1d øpiril.ed coDlpo!lih(lo.-We cannot close without stront'ly recnm 
Dleuðin<< the Histo" or the Jews u a work equ;1I1y'ilJ
 to ae;e and illstru('ti\"(' h 
1 3Utb , alike acceptatle to tbe ignOnIlI. and to be: pE'NIt:d with pleasure t,' tJt

Esq. 18mo., being No. IX. of the Family Library. 
"Thc volumc Ìlas great merit, and is a valuable acqui5ition to litera- 
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" Mr. GaIt is a 11ne writer, and was llersonally 8.cqualntP,d with Byron. 
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tead Bard will pro"C one of the most amusing and well 
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-PhiZarlclphia Daily Chroniclfl. 
Ir. Galt is in eLC habit of eliciting the truth from whatever he un- 
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to Byron. was never before discovered. corrected, and set down, as we 
fiud in this very interesting voìume:'-Court Journal. 
" Tú be worthy ora place in a publication which is so decidedly and so 
rlesPTyerlly popular with the ]mblic, it fò:hould po
sess more than 
merit; allù t hat this is tI1C case we are led to beheve, first, 
rom Its b

from HiP ''jen of Mr. f;alt; and secondly, from the pubhshers hnvmg 
aRsiglled it a pì.ace iI
 their Family Libr:lf)" ."-.J.Yew- Y (n"k Cou1"ier. 
" Galt is a powèrful writer. 
Iis critical nbilities, anð the rare oppor- 
tn.,ity which he cnjoYl'd of rc
uJmA". th
ets of the my.stenous 
poet. give an undouLted value to tIns hIstory. -!Úw- York Caln,net. 
Mr. Gall Fays in his Preface, "
 never stoo
 on su
h a footi
g with 
his 1.01" 
shil' a
 10 insl ire me wllh any sentiment hkely to bias my 
Jud.rmerh .;. .,. * * I &m gratifieù with the recoHection ofhavillg 
" n a }'TRon 
o ccIebPltcd, UlIÙ I believe myself incapabìo of in- 
tentional injustice." 

 Gf{EA T. 
By Ilcv. J. \Vl!,LIAl\IS. \Vith a l\Iap. No. VII. 01 
the Fan1ily I..ibn:-ry. 
" The style is w>o..
, ar. \ the narrative well condurtc{1. A mooel'1l 
history of tIlis fnmou", warrior calIDot fail to be cntcrlaining."-Ncw. 
]õrk Daily .Adverti
" The work iø instmC'tin!!, 
 tnhl'rits C). 
re8ter sh"lrc of jntt"rp
t from 
the fad, that the hi'itory of tht
 al:cient ...YajJotf'm" is lnsinte;!ru,,
d from 
tbe lJla"'
f'IIf'ral hi
. finet;.. I'lItt'll bv itself. The :;t) 
e Ïb lucid 
and well t-tuJil'd."-Nt'w-} ark )O'U.T,"'l.' rif (.'(Jmmf'TC . 
"' The fuurth \\ Olk included in this coLvtlOJ1 is a life or Atexnndt'r th
C'reat, written by thu Hev. John \VllJiam q , 
")f Bal:ol CoUel!e. Oxford,) 
the well-known Ibund('r amlllC'ad of the l\cw EdinLurgh Acmlcmy, and 
wrilten in a manlier" orth} oflu!ót hi
h t-cholnStl" 'rcputation. lie has 
 felicitously ill this volume lJoth the natJJrIh !lnd acquired en- 
do" mcn
 his nlind-filled a blmtk in tbe historicalliD:"flry, furnished 
the 8choolmsst"'r, and nlso tbe schoolLoy, "hcther at homa.. or abroad, 
with a capitalI&Jill"uù-and there will never be, In as far 8S Wt: can seo, 
the smallest occasiOn ;O
 writing tllis story over again."-Blacku'ood'8 

" This constitutf's the se\"enth volume of the Family I.ibrnry. It is 
Incomparably the be
t life-the most carf'ful and correct l'stlmato oC 
Alexander's achievcment
 \\e ha",e."-)Iontl,Zy Magazine. 
., 'Ve are greatly mi:-.taken if thi
 little vo.i.ume ùnf'S 110t be("omc a 

cl.ool book. 1t is far lwltl'r fitted (hr that pnrpo
" tha!1 anyone or 
recent publicntion, with "hicb \\ e bave chanced to mt:e
."- Lttcrary 
" The present biography is amon
 the most fascinating specimen! or 
biography '\\ e have ever had the good fortune to peru
. "-Sun. 
" To us, 
Ir. \\
Illiams appears to have executed his task in a most 
udicious manner."- The 8wt's Times. 
" ThiR is a much better book than any other in English on tbe 8ame 
subject. "-. f h.enæum. 
u It is ably and eloquently written."-Birmin<711am J01L7'1L\lL 

Works in pT paration for the Family Library. 
Having s
cured the co-operation of Irome of th
t eminent writers 
In ihe countr) , the }lUblishers will henceforward direct their beo;;t Efforts 
to provide a body of popular and usefJ,ll rf'adinlZ, adapted for all cla
and throughout selected on the principle of pres 'ntin
 nothing whidl ,} 
Christian parent may 110t safcly place in the hands or his tämily. The 
Rcheme '\'\ill a]f;o embrace a series of works on T,ractical &l.'Íef1rc, popu- 
lerly written, and abundantly iJlustratcd and embellisiled. 
LIFE OF :\IOIlA:\DIED. Dy Rev. George nush, A. 1\L 
LIFE OF FULTOX. By C. D. Colden, E:-Ici. 
LIFE OF CI.Iì\"TOX. By l>avid Hossack, I.L. D. 
KLI:V. Improved editions. 
ERAJ. 'VOLFE. By Robert Southey, Esq. 
LIFE OF CERVANTES. fly J. G. Lockhart, Esq. 
LIFE OF SIR ISAAC i\EWTOX. Bv Dr. Drcwster. 

Nos. IV. & V., \vith copperplate Engravings, an" 
Woodcuts from designs of G. CRUIKSHANK. Fro", 
the 2d London edition. Neatly bound in canvas 
2 vüls. 

"THE F Al\IIL Y LIBRARY -a work ,vhich no one can take into his hands without per 
cei dng th3.t the supply or the l'f'.3.ding market is underp;oing, or about to undergo, a complet.> 
I'bvolution; which, in the n..'unes of some of its writen, furnishes evidence that the very high 
est talent no longer disdains to labour for those \\ Þo can buy cheap books only-and evidenCA 
\ve are still more happy to see, that an attempt at least ie to be made to infuse and strengther.. 
right principles and feelings, as well as to extend more knowledge, among thOle classes." 
Quarterly Review, No. LXXVlIL 
"We noticed the fin;t vo
ume of thIS beautiful work at the {>eriod of its publication, and 
we shall merely remark z tha.t the 
resent volume fully maintaJ06 the high character which 
Its predecessor demanded from us."-Ber/uhire Chronicle. 
" Au total l'ecbantilJon que M. M umy nOUB a donne, est d'un bon augure pour les autree 
parties de la collection, l'editeur a {mise aux bonnes lOurces et Pon peut s'en convaincre, 
non seulement par Ie corns meme de I'ouvrage, aussi par lee gnVUrei dont il l'a em 
belli; nous en",<rageuns dl..Jc les amateurs a s01Jscrire, et a encourager lee louablea efforta 
qU'Ull libraire estimable prodigue pour leur plaire."-Furet de LO'll.dru. 
" The first work published is a happy specimen; .i.ic omnia, this will be the mOlt de. 
lightful collectioD ever made. It is the Life of Duonaparte, told in a style which imparta 
all the channs of rom.."\Dce to the se\'ere and exact truths of hiltory. It is, indeed, in every 
pect, a model of composition."-Standard, ApriZ 16. 
"The volume bp,fore us conta.ins about as much matter as an ordinary octavo; and, eonsi. 
ðering the style in which it is brought out, it is certainly very cheap."-The Scouman. 
"We are very sure that if the Family Library goes on as it begins, it will BOOn do more 
to put down the trade of literary trashery than any arguments or reflections we could intm 
dure here; and we therefore conclude with our most hearty commendatioD!l of a desigl', the 
first example or which merits the highest encomium we can bestow upon it." 
Literary Gazette 
"It is a work that should be in thf' hands of both old and young. It is, ill fact, u the 
title imports, a Family Library."-CourÚT and Enquirer. 
"We mvt! examined the tint volumes of the Family Library, and find them as we ex- 
pected from the subject, and the reputation of the author, very interesting. No plan that 
we have: met with, is as well calculated to furni
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this,; and we hoþe the attempt of the publishers may meet with. liberal patronage." 
N. Y. Daily JJ.dvertiM:r. 
"This is both a beautirul and an interesting volume. The Lire itself is very plea8antJy 
and clearly written, and rnnns an 
e,'able pendant to the more operoae and voluminoua 
productioñ of Sir Walter Scott."-Cal&ionia7& Mercury. 
"We can confidently recommend the work to all penol1l deairous or potsesaing a popular 
life of Napoleon."-Fa.ll1wuth Pactet. 
"It is, unquestionably, in a brief anrt tangible form, the most popular Hist(\
 of Napo. 
leon that has been yet produced."-Atla.f. 

Works in preparation for the Family Library. 

. I 

LIFE OF 1\ OIlAì\ ì\ ED. 

IIarpcr'a Stereotype l






"JD OF TilE 



.nrw==!Jork : 

Sold by Collins &. Hannay, Collins &. Co., G. &. C. k II. Carvill, \Vhite, 
G&lIaher, & 'Yhit(', and n. A. Roorb=1ch ;-PHII.ADELPHH., Care}' &. 
L(,ß, .John Gri!.'
, Towar &. .J. &. D. 1\1. Hue:!... U. Hunt, E. I... Caley 
&. .'\. Hart, all(1 'i'Carty &. navis ;-ßALTIMORIC, Cushing & Sontt, 
J. Jewett, ancl 'V. & J. lXeal ;-BI'STON, Riehardson, Lord, & nol 
brook, Hilliard, Gray, & Co., and Carter & Hendee. 





ß E IT REMEMBERED, That on the 30th day of September, Ä. D. lS30, in the fifty-. 
finh fear of the independence of the United States of America, J. & J. HARPER, of 
the ø district, bave deposited in this office Ibe title of a book, the right whereof they 
claim as Proprietors, in the WONS following, to wit; 
"The Life of Mohammed; Founder of the Religion of Islam, and of the Empln. 
of the Saracens. By the Rev. George Bush, M.A." . 
In oonfonnity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled" .A1.1 Act for tT 
encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and llooks, to the 
authors a.nd proprietors of such .copies, during the times therein mentioned." And also 
to an Act entitled t "An Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled an .Act for Ole enoou- 
l'ag-ement of Learnmg, by securin
 the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors 
and rroprietors of such copies, durin
 the times t
ercin mentioned, and extending the 
benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, a:1d etching historical an.! other 


\ <'02., \ 

Clerk of tM Southern Distrid oj New-Yor1&. 


- - I 



TIlE presC'nt work lays claim to no highpr cha- 
racter than that o( a conlpilation. 'rhis inùe'd 
Inust nectassarily he the character of any ,,"ork at- 
tcnlpleù, at this da), upon the same sulJiect. \ll 
the accessible fact
 in the life and fortunes of the 
A rabian prophet have long since been given to the 
 c,v theories and speculation9, moral and 
philosophical, foundeù upon these facts, and many of 
theJIl Tiehly òe
erving attention, dre frequently pro- 
pounded to the reflecting, but they aùd little or no- 
thing to the amount of our positive information. 
.All theTr-fore that c n now be e>"1Jected is such a 
selection and arrangcInent and investment of the 
leading particulars of the Impostor's history, a
shall convey to the English reader, in a correct 
and concentrated form, those details ,vhich are 
other\vise diffused through a great number of rare 
books, and couched in several tJifferent languages. 
Such a ,vork, discreetly prepared, ,vould sppp1r, 
if ,ve n1Ístake not, a very considerable desideratum 
in our language-one ,vhich is beghming to be 
more sensibly felt than ever, and ,vhich the spirit 
of the age loudly requires to have supplied. Ho,v 



far the present sketch may go towards meeting the 
demand, it becomes others than the ,vriter to judge. 
He has aimed to make the mOßt judicious use of 
the materials before him, and from the ,vhole mass 
to elicit a candid lnoral estÌ1nate of the character 
of the Founder of Islaln. In one respect he may 
venture to assure the reader he will find the plan 
of the ensuing pages an Ï1nprovenlent upon pre- 
ceding Memoirs; and that is, in the careful colla- 
tion of the chapters of the Koran ,vith the events 
of the narrative. He will pro1l[lbly find the history 
illustrated to an unexpected extent from this 
source-a circumstance, ,vhich, while it serves 
greatly to authenticate the. facts related, imparts a 
zest also to the teÍ10r of the narrative scarcely to 
be expected from the nature of the thenle. 

In order to preserve the continuity of the story 
froln being broken by incessant reference to au.. 
thorities, the foIIo,ving catalogue is' sublnitted, 
,vhich ,vill present at one vic\v he principal ,vorks 
consulted and employed in preparing the present 
l,ife :-Sale's l{oran, 2 vols.; Universal History, 
l\Iod. Series, vol. i.; Gibbon's Decline and Fall 
of the ROlnan Empire, vol. üi. ; Prideaux's Life of 
Mahomet; Bouiainvillier's do.; do. in Library of 
Useful Knowle
ge, No. 45; Bayle's Historical 
Dictionary, Art. Mahonlet; Hottinger's IIistoria 
Orientalis: Abul-Faragii Historia Dynastaruln, 
Pocock's Trans!.; l\iorgan's l\iahometism Ex- 
plained, 2 voJs.; Forster's Mahoæ.etanisnl Un- 
veiled, 2 vols.; D'HerbeÌot's Bibliotheque Orien- 



tale; llycaut':; I)rcsent State of the Ott0111an Enl- 
pirc; Ocklcy's IIistory of the Saracens, 2 vols.; 
,\Thit(.'s ßanl!)ton J
c("turcs; lice's 'J'rallslation of 
the Ilcv. II. l\Iartyn's Controversial 'rrdcts; 
'\11Ïtaker's Origin of Arianism; Faber's SaCl ed 
Calcndar of })rophcc}, 3 \'ols.; lluckillghanl's, 
}{cppel's, Burckhardt"s, anù :\!aùùcn's 'rravels in 
the East. 

On the subject of the Arabic proper names so 
frequently occurring in this ,vork, it lllay be u8eful 
to the English rcaùer to be infonncù, that Al is a 
particle equivalent to our dcfinite article TI,e. 
rrhus, Alcoran is cOlnposeù of hvo ùistinc
signifying Tl,e l\.oron, of ,,,hich the last only 
ought to be retained in EngHsh. Again, Ebn is 
the Arabic \yord for son, as is 13 .nt or Binta for 
daughter, anù \\yith the particle .il after it, accord- 
ing to the -\.rabic usage, Ebllo'l is, t7lf
 S01l. SO 
Abu, fatli r, \\.ith the article aftt;f it, Abu'l, the fa- 
tIter. '"rhus, Said Ebn Obeidah Abu Ol1lri, is, 
Said, the son of Obeidah father of Omri; it be- 
ing usual ,vith the Arabs to take their names of 
distinction from their sons as ,velJ as their fathers. 
In like malUlcr, EbllO'l .Llthir, is, the sm
 of Atlli ; 
Abu'l Abbas, the father of Abbas: an(\ as Abd 
 servant, and Allan, God; Ahdo'lalt or Ah- 
dallalt is, servant of God; Abdo'l Sñems, sertJant 
of the sun, q"c. 

Ffhe deciding behvcen the different modes in 
".hich the prophefs name is, or ought to be, writ- 



ten, and the adoption of the most eligible, has been 
a matter of perplexing deliberation. Upon con- 
sulting the Greek. Byzantine historians, it appears 
that the same diversity of appellation which now 
prevails, has obtained for seven centuries. In some 
of them we meet ,vith J.1Iao1J
etis,. from ,vhich 
comes our lJlaltomet, the most popular and familiar 
title to the English ear; and in others, lJfacho'lned. 
Other varieties among ancient authors might doubt- 
less be specified. But it will be observed, for the 
Jnost part, that ,vriters acquainted ,vith the Arabic 
tongue and who have dra,vn their materials directly 
fron1 the original fountains, as well as the great 
lJody of recent Oriental travellers, are very unani- 
mous in adopting the orthography of the nalne 
,vhich appears in our title page: If the Arabic 
usage be in fact the proper standard, as will pro- 
bably be adn1itted, Alohannned, instead of either 
[ahomcd, or lJfaho'lnmed, is the genuine 
form of the nalne, and the l110de in ,vhich it should 
be unifonnly ,vritten and pronounced. The fact, 
that the exan1ple of 1110st Oriental scholars of the 
present day has given cUTrency to this form, and 
the probability that it ,vill finally supplant all 
others, has induced us, on the whole, to adopt it, 
though ,vith considerable hesitation. 

The folî.o,ving list ofnanles and titles frequendy 
occurring in connexion ,vith the affairs of the East, 
together with their etymological iInport, ,viII not be 
deemed inappropriate to the object of the present 



1\ 10 nAIDIED, 
 From IIA)IAD; pra.s d, lligldy c- 
AH)IED. 5 1 brut d, illu
.trious, glorious. 
l\fobL'F.'r, } 'JIl from the same root, ASLAM; 
l\IussùLJt.A.N, signifying to yield Uj, dt dicatt, 
ISLA1\I, cuns era c ntirel!J to tl 
ISI.AìUIS) . of rcligi n. 
KORA.v.-FrOlll IÚRA, to read; tlte reading, legcnd, 
or that w
ich Ot/gllt to be read. 
CALIPH. -A stlcce'ssor; from the IIcbrcwCIIALAPH, 
to be changed, to succeed, to p ss round ill, 
a revolution. 

SULTA...'\.-Originally fronl the Chald1ic SOLTA.
signifyinfT autllority, domin .on, principality. 
VIZIER.- n assistant. 
IIADJ.-Pilgrimage; HADJI; one WILD makes the 
pilgrtnlage to .Jllccca. 
SARACE".-EtYlnology doubtful; supposed to be 
from SAllAK, to stcal; a plunderer, a robber. 
 TIle Fligh ; applied emphatically to 1\10- 
01' hanlnled's flight from l\Iecca to 
HEJRA. dina. See page 106. 
l\'IUFTI.- The principal head of the l\lohammcdan 
religion, and the rcsolver of all doubtful 
points of the la,v.-...\n office of grC'at dig- 
nity in the rrurkish clllpirc. 
I.-A kind of priest attachcd to the mosqucs, 
,vhose duty it is occa
ionally to cXl)ûund 



a passage of the Koran. They, at the 
same time, usually follo,v so
e more lucra 
tive employment. 
MOOLLAH.- The Moollahs form ,vhat is called 
the Ulema, or boùy of doctors in theology 
and jurisprudence, 
vho are entrusted \vith 
the guardianship of the laws of the e111- 
pire, and froln ,vhose number the l\lufti is 

EMIR.-.LiuEal descendants of the Prophet him- 
self, distinguished by ,vearing turbans of 
deep sea-green, the colour peculiar to all 
the race of :rviohalnn1ed. They have spe- 
cial Ï1nmunities on the score of their de- 
scent, and one of them carries the green 
standard of the Prophet ,vhen the Grand 
Seignior appears in any public solemnity. 
P ASHA.-'-rhe title given to the provincial governors. 
A Pasha is to a province or pashalic, what 
the Sultan is to the en1pire, except that the 
judicial po,ver is in the hands of the cadis, 
the provincial magistrates. The tails of a 
Pasha are the standards 'v hich he is allo,ved 
to carry; one of three tails is one of three 
standards, ,vhich number gives the power 
of life and death. 
.REIs EFFENDI.-rrhis officer may be termed the 
IIigh Chancellor of the Ottornan empire. 
lIe is at the head of a class of attorneys 



" hich at thi time contains the best informed 
luen of the nation. 
SERAGLIO.- This ,,"ord 1;3 derived from Serai, a 
terrll of l}ersian origin, signifying a palace. 
It i
 therefore iUll>1operly used illS 
m us \vith IraTcIIl, the apartIncllt
 of the 
',,"olnen. The S 
ra(Tlio i:), in stric-tncss of 
speech, the place 'Vhf\fC thl' court of the 
Grand Seignior is held; but it so happCll:i 
that at Constantinople this buildinrr includes 
the Í111perial IIarclu within it
CRESCEXT.-l'hc national cnsicrn of the 'furks, 
surmounting the domes and minarets <Lt- 
ta.chcd to their IU0squcs, as the Cro
s docs 
the churches of the I
onlan Uatholics in 
Christian countric:-,. 'fhic; pc
uliar and 
w1Ïversal use of the Crescent is said to 
have o\ved origin to the fact, that at the 
time of l\lohalnmcd's flight frorn )Iecca to 

Iedina tlte moon v"as n w. lIenee the 
half moon is commeulorative of that event. 
SUBLIME PORTE.- This title, ,vhich is frequently 
applied to the court, cabinet, or executive 
department of the Ottoman empire, is de- 
rived, as the ,vords import, from a lofty 
arched gate,vay of splendid construction, 
forming the principal entrance to the Seraglio 
or palace. It is a phrase equi valent to 
" Court of St. James," " Court of St. Cloud," 



As one grand object continually aimed at by the 
. compiler of the ensuing pages has been to exhibit 
the Arabian prophet as a signal instrument ill the 
hands of Providence, and to put the ,vhole system 
of his imposture, with its causes, accompaniments, 
and effects, where it properly belongs, into the 
great scheme of the Divine administration of the 
world, it is hoped that the prophetic investigations 
of this subject in the Appendix will not be over- 
looked. The writer is disposed to lay a peculiar, 
perhaps an unreasonable, stress of. estimation upon 
this portion of the work. Not that he deems the 
interpretation proposed as infallible, but he is in 
hopes that this essay to\vards a right explication 
may contribute somewhat to inspire a more gene- 
ral interest in this province of scriptural elucida- 
tion, and thus to pave the way for the eventual 
correction of the crrors of this and every preceding 
exposition. No one who add . ß the truth of reve- 
lation but \vill acknowledge that events, which are 
so overruled in the providence of God as to revo- 
lutionize a great portion of the civilized and Chris- 
tian world, are important enough to claim :1. place 
in the prophetic developernents of futurity; and if 
predicted, these predictions, when 
are ,vorthy of being explamed. Otherwise, we 
,villingly and culpably forego one of the main ar- 
guments in favour of the truth alld divinity of tbe 
inspired oracles. · 


PRier A.CE . .. . ... . . .. . ..... . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . ... . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . 5 
Introduction. . ... . . .. . . .. . ... . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . .. 17 


Nat ,onal Descent or the Arabs-l)roved to be from lsbrnael, n of 

AbrabaITl ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . ... .. 25 

Cl11P fER D. 

Birth lU1d }")arcntage of :\[ohammed-Ln
cS his Parent in early Cluld- 
'loOO-Is})lared under the Care of his 1 T nde Abu Taleb-.Goe.<i lDto 
Syna on a tradmg Expedition \\ ith biN Uncle at the A"8 of thirtecll- 
Enters tko 8 roce of Cadijah, a \Vldo\V of Mecca, whom he nftenvard 
marries. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. 32 

CHAP fER 111. 

ohammed fonn
 the Design of palming a new Religioft upon the 
\\ orld-Diilicult to account for tbis Uetermination-COnsideratJons 
suggested-Retire", to the Cave of Hera-Announces to Cad1jah the \ 
Visits of Gabriel with a Portion ofthf' Koran-She becomes a Convert 
-HIs slow Progre
s in gaining }")roHeI} tes-Curioulf Coinci
el1ce 45 


The Prophet announces hi", 
[is8ion among Ius KinfÙ'ed of the KoreIsn 
-Meets with a lmrsh Repubc-ßegins to declare it in Public-- '\ lCW 
of bis fundamental Doctrines-His PreteDSlons respecting the Koran 
-The disdninful Rejection of his 1( '-1.sag by hi.
ÐIS consequent DenunciatIOns 3...:tInSl tIa .11l..................... SG 





Mohammed not discouraged by Opposition-The Burden of his Preaching 
-Description of Paradise-Error to suppose Women excluded-Of 
HeIl-Gains some Followers-Challf'nged to work a Miracle-His 
Reply-The Koran the grand Miracle of his Religion-JudiciaIOb- 
duracy charged UDon the Unbelievers. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 68 


The Koreish exasperated and alarmed by Mohammed's growing Success 
-Commence Persecution--Some of his Followers seek safety in 
Flight-New Converts-The Koreish form a League against him-Abu 
Taleb and Cadijah die-He makes a temporary Retreat from Mecca- 
Returns and preaches with increased Zeal-Some of the Pilgrims 
from Medina converted .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. 83 



The Prophet pretends to have had a Night-journey through the Seven 
Heavens-Description of the memorable Night by an Arabic writer- 
Account of the .Tourney-His probable Motives in feigning such an 
extravagant Fiction . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 89 


An Embassy sent to the Prophet from Medina-Enters into a League' 
with them-Sends thilher a Missionary-Another Deputation sent to 
proffer him an Asylum in that City-HiR Enemies renew their Perse-, 
, cutions-Determines to fly to Medina-Incidents on the Way-Makes 
a solemn Entry into the City-Apostate Christians supposed to have I 
joined in tendering him the Invitation. . ... . ... . ... · ... . ... ..... 101. 



The prophet now raised to a high Pitch of Dignity-Builds a Mosque 
I - A Change in the Tone of his Revelations-The Faithful now com. I 
manded to fight for the true Religion-Ilis first warlike Attempt 
unsuccessful-The Failure compensated in the Second-Account of \ 
the Battle of Beder-This Victory much boasted of-Difficulties in the 
Division of Ule Spoil-Caab, a Jew, assassinated at the lnstan
e of 

the Prophet . .. . . .. . . .. . 1& .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 109. 




Mohammed alters the h.ebla-Many of his Followers greatly offended . 
thereby-'Iohammedan Institution of l
}"er-Appoints tho Fast of 
Ramadan-Account of this Ordinant"c .".. ... . ... .... . .... ..... 119 

('11 \l-TEU À1. 

The Korc
h undertake a new EX] t!ition n.,ooaInC)t the Prophet-The 
ßmtle of Ohod-:\lohammeel and his Anll
 entirel} dcfeatcd -llis rol- 
lowers murmur-The Propht't'R poor }}evices to retrieve the ])Üwrace 
incurrc(l in t111
 it muinly 1I1to the ])odrine of Pn.. 
dcstination-\\ìne ancI (;ames of ('hance forbidden-r-opbyan, son of 
Iain-'\"arof the Ditch ............................... 12 

The Jews the 
pccia1 Ohjeets of )Iohamm{'d's Enmuy-beyeral Tribe
of them reùuced to t-:uhjertion-Undcrtahes a Pll.rrima e to 
The 'le("('an9 conclude a Truce with him of ten lears-His Po\\cr \ 
and Authority 
reat1y increased-lIas a Pulpit constructcd for his 
t Chaibar, a f'ity of tho .\rab Jew::i-ßctiie Tes 
and takes th 
 City, but i>> poisollc(l at an Entertainment by a } oun eo 
,\ oDJau-Is ,.,till able to ])rosecute hioõJ Victories... . .... ..... ... 135 


l\lohammed aneg
 a Breach of Faith on the Part of thfl :\Icecanq, and 
marches an Army against them-The City surrendered to thp Con- 
queror-Abu bophyan and Al Abba
, tht" l)rophet's Uncle, declare 
themselves Converts-)Iecca declared to be Holy Grounù- - nle neigh- 
bouring Tribes collect an Army of four thousand :\Ien to arrest the 
growing Power of the Prophet-The Confederates entirely overthrown 
-A rh al Prophet ariscs in the Person of :\lo:icllama-ls rrusned by 
Caled. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-12 
The Religion of the Prophet firml) established-The }mnl"ipal Countries / 
subjected by him-The eftècts of tbe Poic;on make alarming Inroads 
upon his Constitution-Perceive:5J his End approaching-Preaches for ...\ 
the last Time in Public-His last Illness and Death-The )[oslems 
scarcely persuaded that their Prophet was dead-Tumult appeased 
by Abubeker-The Prophet buried at :\Iedilla-The Story of the 
banging Coffin fa
 ......................................... 150 



Reflections upon the extraordinary Career of Mohammed-DeseriptioD 
of his Person-General View and Estimate of his Character. . .. 156 


Account of the Prophet's 'Vives-Cadijah-Ayesha-Hafsa-Zeinab- 
Safya-His Concubines-Singular Precepts in the Koran respecting 
the Wives of Mohammed-His comparative Treatment of Jews and 
Christians-Predictions of the Prophet alleged by Mohammedans to 
be contained in the sacred Scriptures... . ....\... .... .......... 167 

ApPENDIX A.-Inspired Prophecies respecting 1\Ioharnmed and Moham- 
medanism considered.... . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ... 181 

ApPENDIX B.-Th(Caaba, and the Pilgrimage to Mecca........... 210 

ApPENDIX C.-The Koran. .. . ... . . .. . . .. . .... . .. .. .. . ... . ... . .. 

DIX D.-1\lohammeùan Confession of Faith... . ... . . .. . . ... 241 

ApPEXDI1. E.-Account of Authors. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 250 


In page 75, line II, for t/ten, read ,. there." 
" ]56, " 14, tor eight, read" eighty." 
" 181. " 5," j)an. vii. 8-2t1t is omitted 


No revolution recorded in history, if .,ve except 
that cffectcd by the rcli(Tion of the (;osPC'], has in- 
troduced grC'ater ehallges into th(' stab; of the (.ivil- 
ized ,vorld, than that ,vhich has g-rO\\ïl out of the 
rise, pr()gr(>

, and p('rman('nce of )lùhrLmlned(lu- 
iSlll. 'l'he h
tory and charactf'r, thc)"t.fore, of this 
religion beconlCS an ohjcct of laudable curiosity 
,vith evcr} (tnlightened ßlinù. Considcred merely 
as a departlllcnt of the gC'neral annals of the 
,vorld, apart from any conncxion ,vith the true re.. 
ligil}n, it furnishes 
onl(, of the n10st intcresting 
 of thp hlunan T(U'C. But \VhPll ,ip\\ ed a'3 
a part of thc gre<tt chaiu of pro\riùcntial and pre- 
dicted events, designed to have a direct bcaring 
upon the statp of the Christian church, through the 
""hole period of it
 prevalence, it urges 
a ne\v and btronger clain1 upon our attention. By 
Inany distinguished "Titers, ,vho have def'ply stu- 
dicd its origin, genius, and history, th
 religion of 
the Koran is confidently regarded rather as a 
Christtan heresy, or the product of a Christian 



heresy, than as a heathen superstition. * Conse- 
quently, its fate is involved in that of all false 
doctrines ,vhich have corrupted the Gospel; and as 
far as the disclosures of prophecy, or the present 
posture of the nations of the earth, hold out a 
hope of the speedy do,vnfall of delusion, and of 
the establishment of the truth, the eye is naturally 
turned with deepening interest and anxiety to those 
regions of the globe ,vhere this religion has so 
long prevailed. 
But in proportion to the interest inspired in the 
general subject of 1\10hanlnlcdanislll, is that which 
is felt in the life, character, and actions of its 
founder. That an obscure individual, sprung from 
the roving tribes of Arabia, follo,ving no higher 
occupation than that of a caravan-trader, possess- 
ing no peculiar advantages of mental culture, nor 
distinguished in the outset by any pre-en1Ìnence of 
power or authority, should yet have been enabled, 
in spite of nUlllerous obstacles, to found such an 
extensive empire over the minds, as well as per- 
sons, of Inillions of the human race, and that this 
dominion should have been continued for lTIOre 
than t,velve hundrcd years, prescnts a phenomenon 
which increases our ,yonder the nlore steadily it is 

* ,
 lIenee," says the learned and exemplary Mede, " 1\Ia.hometaniem 
has frequently been accounteù a Christian heresy j and as it had its 
origin in Christianity, so to Christ it looks in the end. For, according to 
the creed of the Mahomctans, .1('sus is expc('tp.d to descend to earth, to 
embrace the leligion of Mahomf't, to slay Antichrist, and to reign with 
his saints." Thc same authority affirms, "that the Mahometans arp 
nearer to Christianity than many of the ancient heretics; tlw Cerinthians, 
Gnostics, and ",laniche

lXTR J)T "tTtoX. 


It is propo
(.d in tll(' t'll"\uing- 1';1 fJ (IS to exhibit 
the !)fOluin('l1l 'vent. of tll 
 lif' . ud f()I"Íunr. of 
this rrnlarhahl m
n. It ,,"j)] Hot, of ('ours(', he 
e'pC'etC'cl that, at this distaJH'e uf tinl(
 al1d r }lllote- 
n'S8 of pIa.
, a 111 
s of f1.('. utirply )1(\\\'" should 
hI' c0J11municatcd to the ,\"orld.. '(,Iu' cJi
rre('t U
of the m
tcrials aln
ady (',tan t i.
 all tha can no,.., be 
reasonably requir .d or attclllpt -ù. ,,. ct ".p are no 
,,'ithout hopp, that in onp a
pc('t, at Ica
t 0111' thCIUP 
Jnay pr('
cnt itse]f arrayed in a cha!"1.ct '.r of novelt} 
and of un".olltcC\ illtC'rC's,,; '\"C' 111('an, in i
,,,,ith Christianity. ..\ n l'nlightC'JH.d f'hri
ln e
matf' of th
 prophet of \.rahia and hj
 religion i
, ,,"e 
belieye, S .ldolu formed, 
inlply hcrau!=\(' t1)(
ject has seldom hC'('J1 
o prt'
entf)d as to a1T rd the 
loeans of such an .
tiJllat '. _\. bri of 
ke ch, there. 
fore, of the state of ()hristianity at the tim of 
l\lohammcd's 3ppear3n('e, psppci1.]Jy in that region 
of the ,vorld in ,vhi(.h his imposture took. its rÎRe, 
,,"ill properly invite thr' TPadpr's attention at th 
outset of the work. Thi, ".ill sho\" n10re clearly 
the intended providential bearinO's of tllp f
fabric of l\lohammcdan delusion upon tJH
of Christ; and apart fTOln tIus paTti 'ular vie\\' of 
 '" e are pcrsuaded that an entirely corr
ct or 
adequate judgment of h.lami
nl cannot be fomled. 



State of Christianity in the Sixtl" Century, 
particularly in the Eastern Churches. 

'rhe distinction of Eastern and Western churches, 
in ecclesiastical history, is founded upon a similar 
geographical division of the R01nan en1pire under 
the emperors, into t"\\ro great departments; the one 
including the countries of Asia or the East, "\vhich 
had been subjected to the Roman arms, and the 
other those of Europe, more properly denominated 
the West. This distinction becan1e still more 
common from the days of Constantine, ,vho re- 
lTIoved the seat of the enTpire from ROlne to Con- 
stantinople, though the final and con1plete rupture 
bet\veen the Greck and I
atin churches did not oc- 
cur till the seventh century. 
Over the largest portion of the Roman empire 
the Christian religion ,vas early propagated, and 
for hvo or three eenturies subsisted in a great de- 
gree of its original sin1plicity and purity. Flourish- 
ing churches ,vere planted Ly the Apostles them- 
selves in the different provinces of Asia l\iinor, 
and along the eastern lin1Ìts of :Europe; froll1 ,vhich 
" the ,yord sounùeù oui" to the aùjaeent territories 
with a multiplying pO\\Ter, so that the cause and 
kingdom of the l{cdeelner continued to spread long 
after its first propagators had entered into their 
rest. But a gradual degeneracy supervened upon 
the primitive prosperity of t.he church. During 
the fourth century "the mystery of iniquity," 
wlúch had been long before working in secret, 

ISTR01>Ut.' fIOX. 


began to di!=;cover it,clf lTIOre op(\nly, and though 
hriitians, by the la,vs of the cllJpire, "rere ex- 
enlpted froln per
ect1tion, yet froln thi
 time for- 
,yard a gro\viuO' dccl }H
ioll anù def(")ction alnong 
them is to be trat-cd through c, cry suh 'cqucnl 
period, till at length, ill the sevcnth century, "thl' 
man of sin It, becalllc fully rev 
. lcd, anù, accordil1
to thp preùictions of holy \\
rit, took hið Rcat h 3 
God in thC' tenlplp of God, oppu
ing' and t'"\.alting 
hÎ1nself above all that i
 called God, or i:3 ,,'or- 
shipped." 11 ,vas about the period at ,vhich 
hauulleù arose that thir-- fearful aposta"} had at.. 
taineù its height-that -... the transgre
 'or had 
come to the full"-and thp dC'g-rep to ,,'hich the 
1l01l1illal church had departed ti'OJIl tlH'\ standard of 
faith, Illorals, anù" orship -'ontaincd ill the S "rip- 
, ,vell nigh surpa
=,,(1s },eli({. 'fhen it ,,,,as that 
thosc foul corruptions and sup "r
titions ,\ ere in- 
troduced into the church, "hich finally grc". to 
Euch a pitch of cIlonnity a
 to occasion the HCpet- 
ration of Luther anù the other reforIncrs frotll ,vhat 
they òeelneù anù denonlinated tlH
 cOJnmunion of 
Antiehrist. -,,\t thi
 period it ,vas, that the, enf'rd- 
tion for depart )a 8aints and 1l1artyrs-thc idolatrous 
,vorship of images anù T
lics-thc rendcrina- divine 
honours to the \Tirgin )J(lfy-tlu
 doctrine of pur.. 
gatory--alltl the adoration of thp (1ros
, had bc- 
COlne 1inuly established; and thus the lustre of the 
Gospel sutlercd a dark ee1ipsp, and the e

ence of 
Christianity" as lo
t under a load of iille and su- 
perstitious cerelnonics. 
In thp e:l
t(\rn parf
 of tho c111pir(1, especially 



Syria and the countries bordering upon Arabia, as 
,veIl as in some part3 of Arabia itself, these evils 
'v ere aggravated by the nurnerous sects and here- 
sies that prevailed, and by the incessant contro- 
versial ,vars which they ,vaged ,vith each other. 
The church ,vas torn to pieces by the furious dis- 
putes of the Arians, Sabellians, N estorians, Euty- 
chians, and Collyridians, by ,vhom the great doc- 
trines of Christianity were so confounded ,vith 
metaphysical subtleties and the j argon of schools, 
that they ceased, in great nleasure, to be regarded 
as a rule of life, or as pointing out the only way 
of salvation. ('fhe religion of the Gospel, the 
blesseà source of peace, love, and unity anlong 
men, becalne, by the perverseness of sect.aries, a 
firehrand of burning contention. Council after 
council ,yas called-canon after canon ,vas en- 
acted-prelates '\Tere traversing the country in 
every direction in the prosecution of party pur- 
poses, resorting to every base art, to obtain t.he 
authoritative establislu11ent of their o,yn peculiar 
tenets, and the c0l1deu1nation önd suppression of 
those of their adversaries. The contests also for 
the episcopal office ran so high, particularly in the 
\Vest, that the opposing parties repea tcdl y had re- 
course to violence, and, in one menlorable instance, 
the interior of a Christian ehurch ,vas stained by 
the blood of a nUlllhcr of the aùhercllts of the rival 
bishops, ,vho fell victÍlns to their fierce contentions. 
Yet it is little to be ,vondered at that these places 
of preferI11ent should have been so greedily sought 
after by men of corrupt minds, ,vhen we learn,. 



that they opcned the dircct road to ,vcalth, luxuryt 
and priestly po,vcr. Ancient hiostorians reprc:-,ent 
the hish{)p
 of that day, as í'nrichC'd by the pre- 
sents of the opulent, as riding ahroaù in pompous 
statp in chariots anù seùans, anù ::5urpa:s:;illg, in the 
cÀtravagance of thcir ff1:fst:-" the 
unlptuousueb:) of 
princes; ".hile, at the sanH") titne, d1C' .cnu
t barba- 
rous ignorance ,vas fast overspreadill fT the natioll::J 
of Chri
tcluloln, the c('clesiastical orùprs thenl- 
s 'lvcs not c"\.ceptcù. .&\.lnong the hi:5hop
, the le!!i- 
timate instructcrs and defendcrs of the church, Huut- 
ben., "ere to be found incapahle of coulposiu CT the 
poor di:;courscs ,\ hich thcir u1fice rcquil ed theln to 
deliver to the peoplc, or of sub::;criLin CT the deer)-'8 
,vhich thpy p
lssed in their councils. "rhe little 
learning in vogue ,vas chir11y (.ollfiueù to the 
Inonks. IJut they, instead of cultivating sci --uce, 
or dif1Ìl
ing any kind of useful kno,vleùgc, 
dercd their tÏ1ne in the study of the f..lbulous le- 
genùs of pretPnded 
aints anù nlartyr
, or in COln- 
posing historieb equally fabulous. 
l'his ,voful corruption of doctrine anù llloral:-, ill 
the clergy ,vas fullo,,'cd, a! Inight be expected, by 
a very gpncral depravity of the conllllon peopll'; 
anù though ,\.c cannot suppose that l';od left hilll- 
self aìtogether ,\.ithout ,vitnpsses in this dark pe- 
riod, }ct the nUlnber of the truly faithful had d\vin- 
dIed do,vn to a 111Cre remnant, aud the '" ide-sprcad- 
ing defection seclned to call aloud for tne judg- 
Inents of hraven. In vie,v of this deplorable state 
of Christianity, anterior to the appearance of 1\10- 
hammeù. \ve are prepared to adnut Jot once the 



justness of the following rell1arks upon the moral 
ends designed to be accomplished by Providence 
in permitting this desolating scourge to arise at this 
particular crisis of the world. 
"At length," says Prideaux, "having "\vearied 
the patience and long-suffering of God, he raised 
up the Sarácens to be the instruments of his wrath ' 
to punish them for it; who, taking advantage of the 
weakness of their power, and the distraction of 
counsels which their divisions had caused among 
them, overran, ,vith a terrible devastation, all the 
eastern provinces of the Roman empire. And 
having fixed that tyranny over them which hath 
ever since affiicted those parts of the world, turned 
every ,vhere their churches into mosques, and their 
worship into a horrid superstition; and instead of 
that holy religion which they had abused, forced 
on them the abominable imposture of Mahomet.- 
'rhus those once glorious and most flourishing 
churches, for a punishment of their wickedness, 
being given up to the insult, ravage, and scorn of 
the worst of enemies, were on a sudden over- 
whelmed with so terrible a destruction as hath re- 
duced thelll to that lo,v and Iniscrable condition 
under ,vhich they have ever since groaned; the 
all-wise providence of God seeming to continue 
them thus unto this day tmder the pride and perse- 
cution of Mahonletan tyralmy, for no other end 
but to be an example and ,yarning unto others 
against the wickedness of separation and divi- 
sion. " 

IOII.Al\ l\IED. 

\.PTER I. 

N(Jtl.onal Delcent of tile Årab
-PrOVtd. to be from r,hmatl,.!an.of 

 tracing the genealogy of nation
 to their pri- 
nutive founders, the book of Gcnesi
 is a ùocu- 
ment of ine
ti)nable value. \Vith those ,vno do 
not hc
itate to receive this and the other inspired 
books of the 
cIÏptures as authentic vouchers for 
historical facts, the national descent of the .l\..rabs 
from Ishmael, the son of Abrahaln, is a point 
,\"hich ,villllot aruni of dispute. The fact of t
derivation, ho\\"cver, has be"\11 seriously brought 
into question by $pveral skeptica] writers, par- 
ticularly by the celebrated hi
torian of the De. 
cline and Fall of the Roman EIDpire. " ith his 
usual dexterity of insinuation, he assails the united 
authority of 
cripture history and Ärabian tradi. 
tion, respecting the peùigree of this remarkable 
people. Yet in no case does he undertake, in a 
forma] manner, to disprove the fact to ,vhich he 
still labours to give the air of a fiction. A BUC- 
cinct vie,,', therefore, of the testimonies which go 
to estab]ish the Ishmaelitish otigin of the Arabs, 

* Decline and Fall, ch. I. 
e , 



may form no unsuitable introduction to the pre- 
sent ,vork, detailing the life and character of ihe 
individual who has done so much towards render... 
ing the race illustrious. 
From the narrative of Moses we learn not only 
the parentage, birth, and settlement of Ishmael in 
Arabia, but the fact also of a covenant made with 
Abraham in his behalf, accompanied with a pro- 
phecy respecting his descendants, singularly ana- 
logous to the prophetic promise concerning the 
more favoured seed of Isaac. "And Abraham 
said unto God, 0 that Ishmael might live before 
thee! And God said, Sarah, thy wife, shall bear 
thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name 
Isaac: and I will establish my coven:lnt ,vith him 
for an everlasting covenant, and ,vith his seed after 
hÏ1n. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: 
Behold, I have blessed him, and will make hilll 
fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve 
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a 
great nation.":iI: In like manner, it will be recol- 
lected, the nation of Israel sprung from the twelve 
sons of Jacob, and ,vas divided into twelvê tribes. 
In a subsequent part of the Mosaic records we 
find the notice of the incipient fulfilment of this 
prediction concerning the posterity of Ishmael 
" And these are the names of the sons of Ishmae11 
by their nalnes, according to their generations: 
The first-born of Ishmael, Nebajoth, and Kedar, 
and Adbeel, and Mibsaln, and Mishma, and 
Dunlah, and Massah, Hadar, and Tema, JetuT? 
" Genesis, xvii. 18-20. 

IFI c.)F "OIIAJl"rED. 


N aphish, anù !{cùen1ah. l'hcse arr the sons of 
lslllnacl, and these are thcir nanlCS by their 
to" n:-" (lnd hy tht'ir ca:-\tlt':i: t
 ('h t' In'incc:-, il{"- 
cording to their nation.....'
 'l'hcir r lographical 
residcncí' is clearly asccrtained ill a suhseqUí'llt 
,-ersc. " 
\nd tilt,} (}" clt froll) Itn ilah unto 
that is hefore Egypt a
 thou go 'st to,,-arùs _\

ria. "t IIavilah anù Shur, by the conscnt of th
best sacred geographC'Th, are allo" cd to Ita, (' ("0111- 
po:-\cd }>(lrt of the region bct\vecll the Euphrates 
anù the Il '<.1 S a, ùenoJuinat.d .\.rahia.t From 
causes no,v unkno"'l, the tribes of iX ehajoth and 
l{ec.Iar 31)pl'ar to ha\ C (lequirpd an asecntlcllcy 
over the re:st, :so that the ,,'hole country i
tinles designated ffoln onc, sOlnf'tinlcs from tlu' 
other of theIn, just a
 the clltirc uation of I:;rat:! is 
SOllletlll1eS called J uùall froln the supcrior JlUln- 
bers, po,,"er, or infiuence of that tribe. Among 
the ancient pr{)
llle hi
t()riaus also "c find the 
nanIes of lV bill, ails anù [cdarenes frC(IUently 
elnploycd as an appellation of the rovinO" inhabit- 

lnts of the 
\rabian dCHert
. This tl'stiI1101l) 
is dircctry confinned hy that of Jo
ephUb. Aller 
reciting the nalnes of the t,,-eJ,.e sons of IshnlétPI, 
he adds :-" "fhese inhabit aU thf' (Ouuntry c>'lld- 
ing froIlI the Euphr (des to the Red Sea, giving it 
the nalue of the Naba 'n an region. 'rhcse are 
they ,vho have given nalnes to the "holp race of 
the Arabs 

ith their tribe
 In the fourth Cell- 
tur ", J crOlue, III his conullcntary on J erelniah, de.. 

· Genesis, xxv. 13-16, tYer. 18. 
t 'Vells's 
ac. Geogr. vol. I. p. 3-11. 
 \nt. Jud. b. 1. ch. 12, 



scribes Kedar as a country of the Arabian desert, 
inhabited by the Ishmaelites, who were then termed 
Saracens. The same father, in his commentary 
on Isaiah, again speaks of }{edar as the country 
of the Saracens, who in Scripture are called Ish- 
maelites; and observes of N ebajoth, that he was 
one of the sons of Ishmael, after whose names the 
Arabian desert is called. 
Another source of evidence in relation to tl\e na- 
tional descent of the Arabs, is their having prac- 
tised, from time immemorial, the rite of circum- 
cision. Josephus has a very reluarkable passage 
touching the origin of this rite among the J e,vs 
and Arabs, in which he first makes mention of the 
circumcision of Isaac; then introduces that of 
Ishmael; and states concerning each, as matter of 
universal and immemorial notoriety, that the J e,vs 
and the Arabians severally practised the rite, con- 
formably with the precedents given them, in the 
persons of their respective fathers. His words 
are these :-" Now when Sarah had completed 
her ninetieth, and Abraham his hundredth year, a 
son (Isaac) is born unto them: ,vhom they forth- 
,vith circumcise on the eighth day; and from him 
the Jews derive their custom of circumcising 
children after the same interval. But the Ara. 
bians adrninister circumcision at the close of the 
thirteenth year: for Ishmael, the founder of their 
nation, the son of Abi.aham by his concubine, ,vas 
circumcised at that time of life. "* Similar to this 
is the testimony of Origen, ,vho wrote in the third 
* Ant. Jud. b. I. cb. 10, 

LIFE l)F )IOllA:\I)IED. 


century of the Christian ('fti. " Thp nativ(\s of Ju- 
dca," says he, "generally circuulcise their chi](
on thf' eighth day; hut thf' Islnnarlitc
 ,,"ho in- 
habit AraLia mu\ er
ally praetise cir{"lIll1cisioll ill 
the thirteenth year, 1 'or thi
 history tells us '011- 
('rruing then.." 'rhi
 ,,'ritrr,likf' Jos{\phus, Ii, cd 
near the spot, and had the hc
t OppOl tunitie
 of 01>- 
taining corrcct illfornlation respccting the ..:\.rahians. 
It is e' ident, tht:fefore, bpyond contradiction, froln 
hib ,\ on]
, that the far.t of thcir cIeri, atioll (nun 
Abrahalll throu(rh I:sluua -I '\Ya
 ån e

point of historical record, and not of 111t'rL tradi- 
tionary raine, at the period cit "hieh he "rotp. 
"The direct tfstinlony to the I
h ex.. 
traction of the .6\raòs furnished h) thp earliest rr- 
cords of the Bible, and cunÍÌrlll('d as ,\ (' 
(. hy fè)rcign 
, is stril\ingly corrobor.atcd by ft'p<.:at .J. 
references, bearing uI>on the saIne point, in latC'f 
pircd ,vriter
, particularly th(
 prophets. 1'hrough 
the long COlu
e of sacred hi
tory and prophtcy, 
e Dlcet ,vith reitcrated allusion
 to exi:.;tiug tribes 
of .6\rabia, dC'scending frOln I
lnnael, and hearing 
the naInes of hi
 BC' era I sons, arllong \\ hich tho:-\f\ 
of l\cbajoth and }\:cdar usually prcdon1Ìnatc. 
Thus the Prophet [saiah, in foretelling the future 
conversion of th{> Gentiles, makes rncntion of tilt' 
"rams of 
7.{rbajoth," the eldest, anù " all the flocks 
of Kedar,'" the second of the sons of Islunael; 
that ir, of the Arab tribes dcscC'nding froln these 
brothers; a passage ,vruch not only affords strong 

.. Orig. Op. tom. ii. p. 16, C4L Bcned. 



proof of our main position, but conveys also an in- 
timation of the future in-gathering of the Moham- 
medan nations into the Christian Church. The 
same ?rophet, in another part of his predictions, 
notices "the cities of the wilderness, the villages 
that Kedar doth inhabit." And again, when de- 
nouncing impending calamity upon the land of Ara- 
bia, he foretells how " all the glory of Kedar shall 
fail;" he employs the name of this single tribe as 
synonymous with that of the entire peninsula. In 
this connexion the words of the Psalmist may be 
cited :-" W 0 is me that I sojourn in Mesech, that 
I d,vell in the tents of ]{edar." 'rhese words arc 
supposed by some of the J e,vish commentators to 
have been written by David, under the influence of 
inspiration, as the prophetic plaint of the Christian 
Úhurch, labouring and groaning, as it has some.. 
times done, under the yoke of Mohammedan op- 
pression. In Jeremiah, also, ,ve find mention of 
Kedar. He speaks of it as "the ,vealthy nation 
that d,velleth without care, "\vhich have neither 
gates nor bars, which dweU alone." Ezekiel, 
moreover, prophesies conjointly of" Arabia and aU 
the princes of I(edar.
' An allusion to 'Tema, the 
ninth son of Ishmael, as the name of a ,varlike 
people of Arabia, occurs as early as in the book 01 
Job: "The troops of rrema looked, the compa... 
nies of Sheba waited for them." Lastly, the tribes 
sprung from Jet'llT and Napltish, the tenth and ele- 
venth sons of Ishmael, are conlmemorated in the 
first book of Chronicles, who are there called Ha- 
garites, from Hagar, the mother of Ishmael, and 

LIFI: Ul 10 IIA)I)f ED. 


of 'VhOUl a hundred thousand lual(l:S ,,"crf\ takcn 
'Vh('n to this ßlas::; of Scripture f\\"idencc of th(' 
descent of the Arabs frol11 Ts}unaf'l ,ve add the ac- 
kno,vledgcd "oincidcnce bcn\r 
en the national cha- 
racter of this pcuplü in C'\ (lry a CT (', and the pn_ùict(ld 
personal character of tht'ir progpnitor-" And IU J 
"rill be a ,vild man; his hand \vill be again
Ißan, and every Iuan's hand against hilu"-aud the 
fact, that the I
hmat.'litish oriCTin of the 
\rabs h(l
ever bC'Cll the con:staut and W1VaJ) iug tradition of 
that pClJple thC1J1Sehrc
, the 
ubj "t 'ear 'cly adJnits 
of a Illorc irrcfragabl(
 proof: 'fhcrc arc certainly 
fe,," landmarks of hi
tory lnore universal or lllore 
permanent than the nalues of countries a11ì 
cd by 
ettlcr:s, 01 fio,vin
 from them, and \\"C Jnay 
as justly question the derivation of IIwlgary froln 
the Hun
, Francc froln the Franks, 'I'urkey fronl the 
Turks, or Jl1dea fl0111 Judah and the JC\\S, as those 
of the several di:strict
 of Arabia from thp respective 
sons of Ishmael. 

... The argument in thi
l chapter is conden
f'd from a more ample dÌ8- 
C\1SSI0n of t1'1e f"llhJe-ct m the ApppnriJ.x to ., Forst
r's l\Ianomctani




Blrth and Parentage of J[ohammed-Loses his Parents in early Child- 
/lOod-ls placed under the care rif!lis 'l.Jncle .Abu, Taleb-Goes into 
Syria on a trading expedition with his uncle at the age of thirteen- 
Enters the service of Cadijah, a widow of lJlecca, u:llOJ11, he afterll:ard 

MOHAMMED, the Legislator of Arabia, the Founder 
of the Moslem or Mohamll1edan religion, and 
thence dignified by himself and by his followers 
with the title of Prophet and Apostle of God, was 
born at l\lecca, a city of Arabia, A. D. 569.<<= His 
lineage, not\vithstallding that 111any of the earlier 
Christian ,vriters, under the influence of inveterate 
prejudice against the prophet and his religion, have 
represented his origin as base and ignoble, is clearly 
sho,vn to have been honourable and illustrious; at 
least, ,vhen rated by the COlnn10n standard of dis- 
tinction among his countrynlen. 1""'he ancient Ara- 
bians, deriving their pedigree fronI Ishlnael, and 
inheriting the nOlnadic habits of their ancestor, had 
from tÏ1ne llllll1enlorial been divided into a number 
of separate independent tribes, roving at large over 
the immense sandy regions of which their country 
is cOlnposed, except ,vhcre here and there a fe\v 
thousands of thenI ,vere gathered into cities, and 
engaged in merchandise. Some of these tribes, 

'#< Other authorities place his birth in A. D. 571. The precise year can. 
notß'c detcnnined with certainty.. 

 ()l.. '\tOUA


from various CtiUSPS, "yprr m\)TP numerous, po,ver- 
ful, and ff>nO'Vncù than others. 'fhat of Korcish. 
froln the founder of \\rhiph )Iohalnulcd \\.as in a di- 
rect line' d(\R
('nded, had Ion!! hlTn tlcrountpd the 
rnos llobip of thenl all, and h
tor"", for 
veral generations, had ranked ..lIl1ong the prinpes of 
:\Ircca, and the kt'(1)cr
 of the kCYh of tlle Caaba, it
:sacreù ternplc. IIis father's nalllC ,va
one of the thirtc(\n sons of Abdol _, 1,)talh'b, the 
chief ppr
oHag in hj
 day tlmollg tht) J{oreish, and 
inheriting fruIll his father IIa"h(,lll tl)(
place ill the v I nmcnt of )Iccca, and succeeding 
him in the custody of the Caaba. 'fhis J 1 asheln, 
the great-grandfather of 'Iohalluncd, ,vas the nlo
heù nan1e in all the line of his preùeces.. 
sors, and froln him not only is the appellation of 
IIashemit{'s bcsto,vcd upon the kindr
d of the pro- 
phet, but even to this ùay, the ('hief magi43trate, 
both at l\lecca and -:\Iedina, "rho Jnust ahvays he 
of the race of 'Iohamolcd, i..; invariably styled 
" The l"}rince of the IIasheInites." The name of 
!,Iohammcd's mother ,vas _\.lnina, ,vhose parentage 
,vas traceable 
lso to a distinguished family of the 
same tribe. IIer lot ,vas envicd in gaining the hand 
of the SOIl of Abùol :\Iotalleb, as the surpassing 
beauty of his person is said to have ravished the 
hearts of a hundred ß1aidens of Arabia, ,vho werc 
left, by his choice of An1Ïlla, to sigh over the ,,,,reck 
of their fondest hopC's. 
Abdallah, though tht:1 son of a ri
h and prÏ1!ccly 

· See Appendu B. 



father, ,vas possessed oíbut little wealth, and as he 
died while his son ,vas an infant, or, as some say, 
before he was born, it is probable that that little 
,vas seized ,vith the characteristic rapacity of the 
Arabs, and shared among his twelve surviving bro- 
thers, t"he po,verful uncles of Mohammed. AI.. 
though the la\vs of the Koran, in respect to inherit- 
ances, promulgated by the prophet himself, breathe 
more of the spirit of equity and kindness; yet the 
pagan Arabs, previous to his time, as ,ve learn frOnl 
E a:stern \vriters, ,vere ,vont to treat \vidows and or. 
phans with great injustice, frequently denying them 
any share in the inheritances of therr fathers and 
husbands, under the pretence that it ought to be dis- 
tributed among those only ,vho ,vere able to bear 
arms, and disposing of wido,vs, even against their 
o\vn consent, as a 'part of their husband's posses- 
sions. The fatherless Mohanl1ned, accordingly, 
faring like the rest of his conntrynlen, received, in 
the distribution of the patrimony, no more than five 
camels and an Ethiopian female slave. 
The IVloslenl \vriters, in order to represent the 
birth of their pretended prophet as equally lnarvel- 
lOllS with that' of IVloses or of Christ, the ancient 
lnessengers of God who preceded him, have re- 
ported a tissue of astonishing prodigies said to have 
occurred in cOlmexion 'v ith that event. If the 
reader will receive their statenlents with the saIne 
implicit faith \vith ,vhich they seenl to be delivered, 
he must ackn0\vledge, that at the moment when the 
favoureù infant \vas ushered into the ,vorld, a flood 
of light burst forth ,vith him and illuminated every 



part of Syria; that the ,vaters of the Lake Sa""a 
,\ ere {llltircly dricd up, 
o that a city ,vag built upon 
its bottom; that an earthquake thrc'\ do,\ n four- 
teen to,,"ers of the king of !'er:5ia's palace; that 
thp sacred tire of th(1 P('rbian
 ,vas (I
anù all the evil Rpirits ,vlúch haù inhabited the 1110011 
and stars ,vere cxpcllC'ù together lÌ"oln their celes- 
tial abod(1g, nor could they PVC'f aftcr aninlatf' idols 
ur deliver oracles on earth. The child also, if ""C 
ll1ay trust to the same authorities, discovercd the 
t ,,"onderful presages. lIe ,vas no SOOnf\f born 
than he fell prostratc, in a posturp of hUlnble ado- 
ration, praying deyout1y to his treator, and saying, 
" God is great! rrherc is no (:0<1 but God, and I 3In 
his prophet !" Dy thc
e anti nlany oth()l' 
, equally a::;tounding, is the prophet"s na- 
tivi said to have been marked. '1'0 Rome of tht'ln 
it ,,"ould indeed al>pcar that the carli()r Chri
gave an honest credcnce ; ,vith this difièrence, ho,v- 
cver, bet\1;een their belicf and that of his folJo,vers, 
that ,vhile the lattcr ascribed them "ithout h
tion to the hand of l
od, giving in this luanncr a 
gracious attestation to the prophetic character of 
 servant, the foæ1er referred thcn1 directly to the 
agency of the d.evil, ,vho might naturally be sup- 
posed, they thought, to ,vork SOlne special ,von- 
ders on the present o('casion. U th ative 
of these nliraculou
 Ihellomena thp reo .ill [nun 
n ud mente 'fhey are lTIeutioncù in the ab- 
senre of a authentic infornlation touching the pe- 
riod anù the event in question. Until the facts al- 
leged a c proved, by competent historical testi- 



Inony, to -have taken place, it is scarcely necessary 
to call in the aid of divine or diabolical agency to 
account for them; as it - is much easier to imagine 
that an imposition or illusion r.oay have been prac- 
tised upon the first reporters, or that the ,vhole ca- 
talogue of wonders is a mere fabrication of- inte- 
rested partisans, than that the ordinary course of 
nature should have been disturbed at this crisis. , 
The Arabic biographers of the prophet, more- 
over, infofln us that Abdol Motalleb, his grandfa- 
ther, the seventh day after the birth of - the child. 
gave a great entertainlnent, to ,vhich he invited the 
principal men of the I{oreish, who, after the repast 
was over, desired him to give the infant a name. 
Abdol Motalleb imlnediately replied-" I name this 
child Mohalllmed." The Koreish grandees at once 
expressed their surprise that he did not call his 
grandson, according to custoln, by a name · which 
had belonged to SOllie one of the faluily. But he 
persisted in the selection he had nlade, saying, 
"May the Most High glorify in IIeaven hin1 
whom he has created on earth!" alluding to the 
name Mohammed, which signifies praised or glo- 
At the early age of t\VO years Mohammed lost 
his father; and four years after, his lllother. The 
helpless orphan, now cast upon the kindness of his 
relations, was taken into the house and falllily of 
his grandfather, under whose guardian care he re.. 
mained but two years, when the venerable Motalleb 
himself was also called to pay the debt of nature. 
In a dying charge, he confided this tender plant of 



the alleicnt 
l0Ck of the I
orcish to the 
of \bu 'falcb, the eldest of his 
ons and the suc- 
cessor of hi
 iluthority. ,.. J.\[r ùearest, be:st beloved 
::;;on"'-thus history or tradition Tf'ports thc' tf'nor of. 
Ijis instruction
-'" to thy (.harge I lave 'loham- 
Jncd, the :son of thine 0""11 brother, strictly reCOffi- 
JllCl1ÙeÙ, ,\"hose natural fllthcr the Lord hath been 
plcased to take to hilns('l
 \\ ith thc intent that this 
dear c-hihl should hc .0Inc ours by adoption; and 
luuch dearcr ought he to he unto ns than ulcrely an 
adopt cd SOH. ]
l'c:ci\ (, hiln, thereforc, at In)" dying 
hands, "ith tht saBle "inccre 10'"(' and t<<:ndcr Lo,v- 
pis ,vith ,\"hich I (!<.liver hint to thy care. IIollour, 
love', and cherish hill1 as lUll .h, or c"C'n Iuore than 
if he had sprung froln thine 0'\"11 loins; for aU the 
honour thou shO"'"{\Rt unto hirI1 shall be trebled unto 
thee. Be 1IIOre than orùinarily careful in thy 
treatIllellt to,vards hinl, for it ,viJI bo rcpaid thee 
,vith interest. Give hin1 the prpfercnce before thine 
o,vn childrl'u, for he excceùcth them and all man- 
kind in excellency and perfpction. 'r
ke notice, 
that \\.hcusoever he calleth npon thee, thou ans,ver 
hÜn not as an infant, as his tender age nlay re- 
quire, but as thou ".ouldst reply to the most aged 
and venerable pf'rson ,,'hell he ask(;th thee any 
question. Sit not ùo,vn to thy repasts of any sort 
;o-;oever, either alone or in eOIllpany, till thy ,,:orthy 
llcphc,," .ì\lohaIl1lllt"'d is 8eated at the table before 
thee; neither do thou ever oflcr to tas1 c of any 
kind of viands, or e\ en to stretch forth thine hand 
to\vards the sanle, until he hath tasted thereof. If 
thou obf-;crvest these my injunctions, thy goods 



shall al,vays increa:sc, and in nowise be dÏIni- 
Whether Abu '"raleb recognised in the deposite 
thus solemnly c01nmitted to his trust an object of 
such high destiny and such profound veneration as 
his father's language \vou
d Ï1nply, ,ve are not in- 
formed; but there is good evidence that he acted 
to\vards his nephew the part of a kind friend and 
protector, giving hin1 an education, scanty indeed, 
but equal to that usually received by his country- 
men. His followers, it is true, in orùer to magnify 
their prophet's supernatural gifts, and render the 
composition of the !{oran a greater miracle, gene- 
rally affirm that he was \vholly illiterate, neither 
able to read or write. In this, indeed, they are au- 
thorized by the pretensions of Mohammed himsel4 
who says, "Thus have we sent do,,-n the book 
of the Koran unto thee.-'l'hou couldst not read 
any book before this; neither couldst thou write 
it with thy right hand: then had the gainsayers 
justly doubted of the divine original thereof."t- 
"Believe, therefore, in God and his apostle, the 
illiterate prophet."t But in the Koran, a complete 
fabric of imposture, the last thing ,ve are to expect 
is an honest adherence to truth. There is abun- 
dant evidence, froln the pages of this spurioiìs re- 
velation itself, that ,vriting ,vas an art in common 
use among the Arabs at that time. The follo\ving 
pl'ecept concerning bonds puts it beyond question. 

,* Morgan
8 Mahometanism Explained, '.01. i. p. 50 
't Koran, ch. nix. t Ch. vü. 



" 0, trur bclicvrrs, "pl)('\n yc hind yoursC'1vrs one to 
the other in a <1(\1.t f,)r a certain tinH', ,vrite it dO'\ïl ; 
and let a ,vriter \\prite uct\vcen yuu a .cording to 
justiee, (LnlI lct not the:' ,vriter Tf1fusc ,vriting ac- 
cording to ,vhat l
où hath taught hinl." 'Ve learn 
also that ..\.li 'l'alcb, the SOil of ..\.bu 'l'alcL, and 
cousin of )Iohalnmcd, ,vith "hOln thr prophet 
passed his childhooù, aftcr\varù b(\came one of 
his scribes, of \VhOlll he had a 11tllUu 
r eJl1ployed 
in making copics of th{' }(oran as its sucf'rssive 
portions ,vere revealcd to hinl. 110" did it happen 
that ..\.bu 'falcb should have had his ::;on instructed 
in ,vriting, aud not his nephe\v 1 'fhe (.ity of 'I ceca, 
lllOreOYer, being a place of traffi(O, the lllcrchants 
Inust ha\pe hourly fclt the "pant of sOlne ulode 
of recording t hcir transactions; and as ,ve are in- 
formcd that 'Iohaullncd hÎ1l1self ,vas for several 
years engaged in nlC'rcantile pursuits before he 
commenct'd the propagation of a nc,v rc Ii ion, it 
is scarcely supposable that he ,vas unacquaintcd 
"pith the use of letters. 
Of the illf
ncy, childhood, and youth of the fu- 
ture prophet no authentic details have reached us. 
'rhe blank has inùeed been copiously supplied by 
the fabulous legends of his votaries, but as they are 
utterly void of cluthority, they ".ill not repay the 
trouble of transcription. Bcing destined by his 
uncle to the profession of a merchant, he ,vas taken, 
as some affirm, at the age of thirteen, into Syria ,vith 
Abu Taleb's trading caravan, in order to his being 
perfected in the business of his intended vocation. 
Upon the simple circumstance of this journey, the 



supeIstition of his follo,vers has grafted a serie
Iniraculous omens all portending his future greatness. 
Among other things, it is said by his historians, that 
upon his arriving at Bozréth, a certain man named 
Boheira, a N estorian 111onk, ,vho is thought by Pr.i- 
deaux to be other,vise called Sergius, advanced 
through the crowd collected in the market-place, 
and, seizing hÜn by the hand, exclaimed, "There 
will be something ,vonderful in this boy; for ,vhen 
he approached he appeared covered ,vith a cloud." 
He is said to have affirmeù also, that the dry trees 
under which he sat were every \vhere instantly 
covered ,vith green leaves, ,vhich serveù hÌ1n for 
a shade, and that the Inystic seal of prophecy ,vas 
impressed bet,veen his shoulders, in the form of a 
smalllulninous excrescence. According to others, 
instead of a bright cloud being the criterion by 
which his subsequent divine Iniss ion was indicated, 
the mark by ,vhich Boheira kne\v hin1 ,vas the 
prophetic ligltt ,vhich shone upon his face. This 
miraculous light, according to the traditions of the 
· Mohammedans, was first placed upon Adam, and 
. from hin1 transmitted to each individual in the line 
of his descendants, ,vho sustained the character of 
a true prophet. '-rhe hallo,ved radiance at length 
rested upon the head of Abraham, from ,vhom it 
.,vas divided into a t,vofold pmanation, the greater 
or clearer descending upon Isaac and his se
d, the 
less or obscurer to Ishn1ael and his posterity. 
The light in the fanÜly of Isaac is represented as 
having been perpetuated in a constant glow through 
a long line of inspired messengers and prophets, 



anlong the chilùren of Israel; but that in the fa- 
nlily of IsJunacl is 
aid to have been suppressed, 
and to h<l\' e lain hiddell through the ,vholc tract of 
ages, fronl Ishn1acl ÙO".11 to the cOIning of Alo- 
11ammed, in ,'" hOln the sac-red synlbol ,vas again rc- 
,riveù, anù no" pointed out to Buhcu"a the high des- 
tiny of him on ,,'hose person it appeared. 1 I o ,v- 
c, cr intrinsically vain anù ,isionary this legend mdY 
be declned, it ßla}", nevcrthcles::;, be "rorth advert- 
ing to, as allording perhaps, in its remoter sources, 
a hint of the origin of the llillo, "hich in most of 
the paintings or ellgravings of the 
aviour is luade 
to encircle his sacred bro,vs. 
'Vhcn Abu Taleb ,\ a
 about to return "ith his 
caravan to l\Iecca, Bohcira, it lli said, again rc- 
peated his solenlU prelllonition, coupled ,vith a 
charge, respecting the cxtrdordinary youth. "De- 
part ,vith th.i
 child, and take great care that he 
does not fall into the hands of the J e,vs; for your 
nephc,v ,,-ill one day becomí' a very wonderful 
person. " 
The early Christian ,vriters have laid hold of 
the narrative of this interview ,vith the Syrian 
monk, as affording a cle,v to the true origin and 
authorship of the I{oran. According to them, this 
Boheira, alias Scrgius, who, they say, was an apos- 
tate Jew or Christian, ins tructcd l\IohaJnmed in the 
histories and doctrines of the Bible, and that they 
in concert laiù a plan for creating a new religion, 
a motley cOlnpound of J udaisu1 and Christianity, to 
be carried into execution t,venty years after,vard; 
and that accordingly thí' monk, rather than Mo- 



ammed, is entitled to the credit of the most im.. 
portant parts of the I{oran. Others again, deeln- 
ing it altogether incredible that a youth of thirteen 
should have conceived the vast idea of forming 
and propagating a ne,v religion, place this corres- 
pondence ,vith Sergius at a later period of his life; 
that is to say, when he ,vas not far froln twenty 
years of age, at which time he is alleged to have 
taken a second journey into Syria. But, as we 
shall see hereafter, the question ho,v far Moham- 
med ,vas assisted by others in the composition .,f 
the Koran is not susceptible at the present day of 
a satisfactory solution. 
The next remarkable event in the life of Mo- 
hammed is his appearance in the character .of a 
soldier. At the age of fourteen, or, as others say, 
nearer the age of t,venty, he served under. his 
uncle, ,,,ho commanded the troops of his tribe, the 
Koreish, in their ,vars against the rival tribes of 
the !{enan and the IIa wazan. They returned 
from the expedition victorious, and thi
stance doubtless tended to render the people of the 
tribe still more devoted to the uncle and the ne.. 
phe,v, and to acquire for Mohammed a notoriety 
,vhich he was afterward enabled to turn essentially 
to his account. 
From this time to the age of twenty-five he ap- 
pears to have continued in the employ of Abu 
Taleb, engaged in mercantile pursuits. As he 
advanced in years there is reason to believe that 
his personal endo\vrnents, ,vhich ,vere doubtless of 
a superior order, together w
th strong native powers 



of illtellc(.t, :in r{('nte oLsLrvation a reaùy ,,
it finù 
l)lea ... ill fr aùdress cOlnbincù to renù 'r hUll both 
popular and prolninent <<lnlong his associates. 
Such, <it lea
t, i:-5 the concurrent testimony of all 
his biographers, and ",.c havc no 11lcanS of invali- 
dating thcir statcments. It is, ho,,"eyer, natural 
(1, that (1. strong colon ring "0111d h(1 put 
upon cvery superior quality of a pretend --d me '- 
sC'nger of Goò, sent to restore the true religion to 
the ""0 1'1 d, and that he, ,,
ho ',(lS by character ? 
prophet, sholùd be repre::;entcd by his aùherents 
as a paragon of all extcrnal pcrfections. 
this period, hy the a!'sÌstanec of his unc]c, h
cntered into the 
('rvicc of a rich trading ,,"iùo,," of 
his nath"c city, ,,"ho had bcen hvice married, anù 
p nanlP was C ADIJ.\II. In the caparity of 
factor or agent to this his ,,"ealthy cluploycr, he took 
ccouù journcy of thrce years into Danlascus 
and the nC'ighbunring rcKÍons of 
yria, in ,yhi
h he 
devotcd hilllself so as
iùuously to the interests of 
Cadijah, and n1anaged the trust comu1ittcd to him 
so entirely to her satisfaction, that upon hiB return 
f'he rc,,"ardrd his fidelity ,,-ith the gift of her hand 
and her fortune. It lua y be Ì1nagillcd, that in 
entering into thi., alliance, 
he ".as probably in.. 
fluenccd by the fan1Ïly conncxions and the personal 
attractions of her 
uitor. llut ,vhatevcr ,,,,ere 
her motives, the union subsequently appears to 
have been one of genuine affection on both sides; 
l\Iohammcd never forgot the favours he had re.. 
ceived from his benefactre
s, and ncver made her 
reprnt of ha\ ing placed her pcr::,on and her for.. 



tune at his absolute disposal. Although Cadijah, 
at the time of her marriage, ,vas forty, and Mo- 
hammed not more than t,venty -eight, yet till the 
age of sixty-four, ,vhen she dièd, she enjoyed- the 
undivided affection of her husband; and that too 
in a country ,vhere polygamy was allo,ved, an.d 
very frequently practised. By her he had eight 
children, of ,vhom Fatima alone, his eldest daugh- 
ter, survived him. And such was the prophet's 
respect to the memory of his wife, that after her 
death he placed her in the rank of the four per- 
fect women. 



011 \ I)'rJ
Il III. 

J,fohammed /!Jnn.t the dt ,r;i
n, f!f l,nlm 'n!r a 'lZl!W lùli
ion '''pon t11 
world-IJÜJiclllt to accollnt fUT tlus det17minatio1l.-(;onsÜtt'Taliull.s 
.4;lIgt: es ted-Retire,y tll tile. Cm' of lIt ra-.Announres to Ca lljah th 
\ri.,its of GabrÙlll'ith a pOTti n cif the liMa l.-Sht- ht rO/1l('s a C01t- 
1'rrt-1Ìis slow progress ill, gaining ]Jrostlylt.s-Curious Coin- 
cui ,.tee. 

REIXG no\\" rai
cù oy his luarriagc to an ('quality 
,,'ith thc first citizens of Jlrl"ca, )Iohauullcd "ras 
rnablpd to pa
s thl' nc,-t Í\\'ch'c years of h

in coulparative aHluenee and (\a
{\; and, until t h(1 
age of ll)rty, nothing rClnar
 distillt'uished thc 
history of th(1 futurc prophet. It is probahlc that 
he still follo\\red the occupation of a nlcrchant, as 
the Arabian nation, lih.(1 their ancestors the I
8, have ah\rays Leen greatly addicted to 
COlnlnercc. It \\raS during this intrrval, ho\\ c\'cr, 
that he 111cùitated and matured the hold design of 
paln1iug a nc,v rpJigion upon the ,,"orld. 'fhi'i th(-re- 
fore beconlc
, in its result
, th(1 most iUlportant 
period in his ,,"holí' life; and it is greatly to be 
regrettpd, that the poliey of the Ï1npostor, and the 
ravages of tÏ1ue, haye deprived us of all 
ourccs of 
infornlation, ,vhich might affi)nl a satisfactory clc,v 
to the real origin of this design. "rhe circum. 

tances ,vhich first suggested it, the peculiar train of 
reflection ,vhich ""ent to chcr1:;h it, the ends ,,'hich 
he propo:sed to accolnplish by it, together ,vith the 
real ag
ncies clnployed in bringing it for,vard, are 



all matters wrapped in impenetrable mystery; yet 
these are the very points on which the inquiring 
mind, intent upon tracing great events to their pri- 
lllary sources, is most eager for information. At 
the present day, it is impossible to determine ,vhe- 
ther Mohammed commenced his. career as a de- 
luded enthusiast or a designing impostor. Those 
who have most profoundly considered the ,vhole 
subject of Mohammedanism in its rise, progress, 
genius, and effects, are, on this point, divided in 
their opinion. 
On the one hand, it is supposed by some, that 
Mohammed was constitutionally addicted to reli- 
gious contemplation-that his native temperament 
was strongly tinged \vith enthusiasm-and that he 
lllight originally have been free from any sinister 
lllotive in giving scope to the innate propensities 
of his character. As the result of his retired spe- 
culations he might, moreover, it is said, have been 
sincerely persuaded in his own mind of the grand 
article of his faith, the unity of God, ,vhich in his 
opinion "vas violated by all the rest of the world, 
and, therefore, might have deemed it a meritorious 
work to endeavou:!" to liberate his countrymen a}J.d 
his !ace from the bonùage of error. Impelled by 
this motive in the outset, and being aided by a 
warm imagination, he might at length have come, 
it is affirnled, as enthusiasts have often done, to 
the firm conviction, that he was destined by Pro- 
vidence to be the instrument of a great and glo- 
rious reformation; and the circumstance of his 
being accustomed to solitary retirement would na- 



turally cau
e thi
ion to tahc a dcrper root 
in his luind. In this Jnanner, it i:s 8UPPO::; Id, hid 
carecr might hav(' cOlTlmenccd; but findinO' hiulsclf 
to have tsuccced"'d he} ond his e
the force of tCJnptation gro\\riuO" ,vith the illcrca:sc 
of his popularity and PO'\ er, his 
clf-Iov{\ at last 
overpo\\-ered h
ullbition toOh. the pI:! 'C 
of devotion, his designs expanùed ,,,ith his t:)UCCCSS, 
and he ,,,,ho had entered upon a pious cnterpri
as a ,vell-nlcaning reiorlller degenerated in the cud 
into a ".ilful ilnpostor, a gross debauchee, anù an 
unprincipled de
On the other hand, it is 111aintained, and "c 
think ,vith JllOre of an air of probability, that his 
conduct from the very first bears the Inal ks of a 
deep-laid and systelnatic design; that although he 
might not have anticipated all the results ,vhirh 
cro\\ì1cd thC' undertaking, yet in every fStf'p of his 
progress he acted ,vith a shre\vdnes
 anù cirCUln- 
spection very little savouring of the drean1s of en- 
thusiasnl; that the pretended visits of dn angel, alJ.d 
his publishing, frolH tune to time, the chapters of 
the Koran, as a divine revelation, arp ,,,holly ineon- 
sistent ,vith the idea of his being nlcrcly a dcludpd 
fanatic; and that, at any rate, the discovery of his 
inability to ".ork a miracle, the grand voucher of 
a divinp mes
enger, must have been :sufficient to 
dispel the fond illusion froln his Inind. 

Iany circumstances, moreo, er, it is said, may 
be adducf\d, which might have concurred to prompt 
and favour the design of this arch iU1posture. 
1. :\lohallllllcù'S genius ,vas bold and aspiring. 



His fan1ily had formerly held the ascendency in 
rank and po,ver in the city of l\iecca, 
nd it ,vas 
merely his n1isfo
tune in having lost his father in 
infancy, and being left an orphan, that prevented 
hÎIn from succeeding to the same distinction. It 
was therefore the dictate of a very obvious prin- 
ciple of human nature, that he should contrive, if 
possible, to make the fortune and influence ac- 
quired by his marriage a step to still higher ho- 
nours, anù to raise himself to the ancient dignity 
of his house. 2. lIe had travelled much in his 
o,vn and foreign countries. IIis journeys "\vould 
of course bring him acquainted ,vith the tenets of 
the different sects of the r
ligious ,vodd, particu- 
larly the J e,vish and the Christian, ,vhich \ver{' 
then predominant, and the latter greatJy corrupted 
and torn to pieces ,vith internal dissensions. Be- 
ing a sagacious observer of mén, he could not fail 
to perceive that the distracted state of _ the exist- 
ing religions had put the Eastern ,vorld into a 
posture extremely favourable to the propagation 
of a ne,v systeln. His o,vn countryme:n, the 
people of Arabia, were, indeed, for the most part 
sunk in idolatry, but the vestiges of å purer faith, 
derived frolfi patriarchal tin1E-
.., ,vere still lingering 
among thmn, to a degree . that afforded him the 
hope of reeovering thC'm to a sounder creed. 3. 
The political state of things at that tÌJnc ,vas such 
as signally to favour his project. '"The ROlTIan 
empire, on the one hand, anù the Persian Inonarchy 
on the other, had both become exceedingly en- 
fr:ebled in the process of a long dccliuc, tU\\Tards 



the last stages of ,vhich th(\y ,ver 
 no,v rapidly 
approaching. Ffhp \ rahs, 011 the .ontrary, ,vcrc 
a strong anù ilourishin cr people, aboundin cr in num- 
bers, and inurpd to hardships. Ffhcir h
ing' tlivj(Jt.d 
into inrlcp('ndent tribc
 prc"'cnt)d abo advantafTt:s 
for th" spread of a nc,v faith ,\'hich y,ould 110t 
have existcd had they been ron
olidat('d into one 
f!t. \s 
TohamlUcù had consideraùle op 
portullities to acquaint hilnsclf, ith the peculiar 
situation f these clnpir
s; as he had carefully noted. 
the genius and disposition of the people" hich COIn- 
posed them; .uu! as h posscsscù a capacity to 
render every circumstance subservient to his pur- 
pose, it is contended, that his sehclne ,\ as 11111Ch 
more legitiulatcly the fruit of policy than of pi 'ty, 
and that the p
eudo-prophet, instead of being piticd 
for hi
ion, is rdther to be reprobated for hi
:1 fabrication. 
Aftcr all, it i
 not iInprobahlc that Infinite 'Vis- 
dom has so oròered it, that a '\ cil of unpenetratcd 
darkness should rest on t1Ie Inotives of the iInpos- 
tor, in order that a special pro,ridcncc may be re- 
cognised in the rise and e
tablishment of this arch- 
delusion in the ,vorld. In the absence of sufIicicnt 
human causes to account for the phenolnena, ,ve 
are more readily induced to ackno,vledge a divine 
interposition. In the production of c,'cnts ,vhich 
are overruled in the goverIunent of God to operatc 
as penal evils for the punishn1ent of the guilty, 
reason and revelation both teach us re,'crently to 
acknowledge the visitation of the. Divine Hand, 
,vhocver or ,vhatevef may have been the subordi.. 



nate agents, or their motives. "Is there evil in 
the city, saith the Lord, and I have not done it 1" 
i. e. the evil of suffering, not of sin. It cannot be 
doubted that, as a Inatter of fact, the rise and reign 
of Mohammedanism has resulted in the infliction 
of a roost terrible scourge upon the apostate 
churches in the East, and in other. portions of 
Christendom; and, unles.s we exclude the Judge of 
the world from the exercise of his judicial prero- 
. gatives in dealing ,vith his creatures, ,ve cannot err, 
provided we do not infringe upon man's moral 
agency, in referring the organ of chastisement to 
the will of the Most High. The life and actions 
of Mohammed himself, and his first broaching the 
religion of the Koran, are but the incipient links in 
a chain of political revolutions, equal ip magnitude 
and importance to any ,vhich appear on the page 
of history-revolutions, from which it ,vould be 
downright impiety to remove all idea of providential 
ordainment. If then ,ve acknowledge a peculiar 
providence in the astonishing success of the Sara.. 
cen arms subsequent to the death of l\tIohaJnlned, 
we must acknowledge it also in the origination of 
that system of religion which brought them under 
one head, and inspired them to the achievement of 
such a rapid and splendid series of conquests. 
'-The pretended prophet, having at length, after 
 of deliberation, ripened all his plans, pro- 
ceeded in the 1110St gradual and cautious 111anner to 
put them in execution. lIe had been, it seems, for 
some time in the habit of retiring daily to a certain 
cave in the vicinity of Mecca, called the cave of 

LrFE 01 '\10 IrAl\I)[EIJ. 


flera, for the o
tcnsible ptuI>ose of 8pl'llòÌng his 
tune in fasting, pra) cr, anù holy 11lcùitation. 1'h(' 
important crisis having no,\"' arri,r
d, he brgan to 
break to his ,,'if(\ on his return hOlllC in thl' ('ye- 
ning, the SOICll1n intellio. 'IU'C of 
upcrllatural yisif)n
and voices ,,,ith \\ hich h. ".a8 favoured in his r
tirement. Cadijah, as luight he (\Ål)(.(,t('d, "'as at 
first incredulous. 
he trcatcd his visions as thp 
 of a disturbed imagination, or as the delu- 
sions of the devil. 'Tohamnlcd, ho" c\ cr, p('r- 
sistcd in assuring her of the rcality of thf\se .0111- 
munications, and ri
ing still higher in his dClllands 
upon her credulity, at lcngth n pt'3tf'd (l pa:-;sage 
,,'hich he affirmed to be a part of a divine revela- 
tion, recently conveyed to him by the n1Ïnistry of 
the angel Gahriel. 'fhe memorahlf' night on 
,vhich this visit ,\ a
 Blade hy the hcaveJùy llles- 
senger is called the "night of .AI I
adr," or the 
night of the d'vine deer , and is 
Tfeatly celebrated, 
as it ,vas the Sdmc night on ,vhich the entire KORAN 
descended frOln the seventh to the lo,vest heaven, 
to be thence revealed by Gabriel in successive por- 
tions as occasion might require. Th
 T{oran has 
a ,vhole chapter devoted 10 the comnlCllloration of 
this event, entitled Al Kadr. It is a
" In the name of the nlost merciful Göd. Verily, 
"e sent down the !{oran in the night of Al Kadr. 
And ,vhat shall make thee understand ho,v excel- 
lent the night of ..\.1 J{adr is ? This night is better 
than a thousand months. rrherein do the angels 

.f< This is the account given by Pridf'aux. Sale, however, say!';, 
Ie I do not remcmhcr to have read in any Eastern author, that Cadijah 
ever rejected her hlL
band's pretcnc('s as (lelusions, or suspected hun of 
any unposture."-Prelim. Disc. ]1. 58. note. . 



descend, and the spirit Gabriel also, by the per- 
mission of their Lord, with his dec:rees concerning 
every matter. It is peace until the rising of the 
morn.":i5 On this favoured night, between the 23d 
and 24th of Ramadan, according to the prophet, the 
angel appeared to hiln, in glorious form, to commu- 
nicate the happy tidings of his mission. The light 
issuing from his body, if the apostle-elect may be 
believed, ,vas too dazzling for mortal eyes to be- 
hold; he fainted under the splendour; nor was it 
till Gabriel had assumed a human forn1, that he 
could venture to approach or look upon him. The 
angel then cried aloud, "0 MOHAM:.\lED, THOU ART 
GABRIEL 1" " Read 1" continued the angel; the 
. prophet declared that he was unable to read. 
" Read!" Gabriel again exclaimed, " read, in the 
name of thy Lord, who hath created all things; 
who hath created man of congealed blood. Read, 
by thy ll10st beneficent Lord, who hath taught the 
use of the pen; who teacheth man that which he 
knoweth not. "t . The . prophet, who professed 
hitherto to have been illiterate, then read the joy- 
ful tidings respecting his ministry on earth, ,,,hen 
the angel, having accolnplished his mission, majes- 
tically ascended to heaven, and disappeared from 
his vie\v. 'Vhen the story of this surprising inter- 
view with a celestial visitant was reJated to Cadijah 
in connexion ,vith the passage repeated, her un- 
 as tradition avers, was wholly overcome, 
and not only so, but she was wrought by it into a 
kind of ecstasy, declaring, "By Him in whose 

* _Koran, ch xcvii. 

t Ch. xcviü. 



hands her soul ,vas, that 8hp trusteù her husband 
,vould indeed one day become the prophet of his 
nation." In the height of her joy she imlllcdiately 
ilnparted ,vhat she had heard to one \,... araka, her 
cousin, ,vho is '\upposed by S0111(' to havp been in 
the secret, and ,vho, bcing a Christian, had ledrncd 
to ,vrite in th(\ Hebre,v character, and ,vas tole- 
rably well versed in the J c" ish and Christian 
Scriptures. lIe unhesitatingly assented to her 
opinion respecting the divine designation of her 
husband, and even affirn1t.
(l, that 'IohammC'd ,vas 
no other thall the great prophet foretold by 'loses, 
the son of Ål11ralU. 'rhis belief that both the pro- 
phet and hi
 spurious religion "rere subjects of in- 
spired prediction in the Old ''fcstmllellt Scriptures, 
is studiously inculcated in the l
oran. "'fhy 
Lord ig th(-> mighty, thC' lnerciful. 'rhis book is 
certainly a revelation frolll the Lord of all crea- 
tures, ,vhich the faithful spirit (Gabriel) hath caused 
to descend upon thy heart, that thou mightest be a 
preacher to thy people in the per
picuous Arabic 
tongue; and it is borne ,vitness to in the Scriptures 
of former ages. 'Vas it not a sign unto them that 
the ,vise lllcn among the children of Israel knew 
it 1". 
Having succeeòeù in gaining over his wife, he 
persevered in that ret.ired and anstere kind of life 
,vhich tends to beget the reputation of pre-eminent 
sanctity, and ere long had his servant, Zeid Ebn 
Hareth, added to the list of proselytes. He re- 
\varòed the faith of Zeid by Inanumitting him from 
WI' Koran, ch. xxüi. 



servitude, and it has hence become a standing rule 
among his follo\vers always to grant their freedom 
to such of their slaves as embrace the religion of 
the prophet. Ali, the son of Abu Taleb, Moham- 
med's cousin, ,vas his next convert, but the impe- 
tuous youth, disregarding the other two as persons 
of comparatively. little note, used to style himself 
the first of 'believers. I-lis fourth and lllOSt in1port- 
ant convert ,vas Abubeker, a po\verful citizen of 
Mecca, by \vhose influence a number of persons 
possessed of rank and authority \vere induced to 
profess the religion of Islam. These \vere Oth- 
luan, Zobair, Saad, Abdorrahman, and Abu Obei- 
, ,vho afterward became the principal leaders 
in his armies, and his main instruments in the 
establishment both of his inlposture and of his 
empire. Four years \vere spent in the arduous 
t.ask of winning over these nine individuals to the 
faith, some of \vhom \vere the principal men of 
the city, and ,vho composed the whole party of. 
his proselytes previously to his beginning to pro- 
claÏ1n his lnission in public. He ,vas now forty- 
four years of age. 
It has been remarked, as somewhat of a striking 
coincidence, that the period of Mohammed's retiring 
to the cave of Hera for the purpose of fabricating 
his imposture corresponds very nearly ,vith the 
time in ,vhich Boniface, bishop of Rome, by virtue 
of a grant from the tyrant Phocas, first assumed 
the title of Universal Pastor, and began to lay 
claim to that spiritual supremacy over the church 
of Cl11 ist, which has ever since been arrogated to 
thenlsel yes by his successors, "And from this 



time," says Prideaux, "both he (the bishop of 
Rome) and :\IohalllrIled having conspired to found 
themselves an empire in Ï1npo
ture, their follo,vers 
have been ever since endea,rourillg by the same 
methods, that is, thos(' of fire and b ,vord, to pro- 
pagate it alnong Inankind; so that .Antichrist seems 
at this time to have set both his feet upon Christen- 
dom together; the one in the Ea
t, the other in 
the 'Vest, anù ho\v much each hath tråmpleù upon 
the church of Christ, all succeeding ages have 
abwldantIy experienced." 'fhe agreement of dates 
here adverteù to lllay be ,vorth noticing; both 
events having occurred ,vithin the first siÀ or eight 
years of the seventh century; but ,vc ha, e as yet 
met with no evidence to convince us of the pro- 
pricty of applying the epithet Antichrist to 
hammed. It is, ho\vever, the opinion of many 
Protestant e'-'})ositors of prophecy, that this appel- 
lation is properly attributable to that system of 
ecclesiastical domination so long exercised by the 
Romish hierarchy, and the continuance of ,vhich, 
it is maintained, is limited by the prophetic term 
of 1260 years. If, thereforp, this predicted period, 
assigned to the reign of the ROJnan Antichrist, be 
dateù frOln near the commencelnent of the seventh 
century, ,ve are not very far from the era of great 
moral changes in the state of the ,,,,orId; and 
there are reasons to be adùuced in a subsequent 
part of this ,,?ork, ,,,,hich lead us to believe, that 
the careGr of i\lohammedanism runs parallel to 
that of Popery, and that, taking their rise from 
nearly a common era, they are destined also to 
synchronise in their fall. 




The Prophet announces his ]l,lission among his Teindred W the Koreish 
-Meets with a harsh repulse-Begins to declare it in public- View 
0/ his fundamental Doctrines-His pretensions respecting the Ko- 
ran.- The disdainful Rejection of his Message by his fellow-citizens 
-His consequent Denunciaticms against them. 

THE mission of Mohammed had hitherto been 
conducted in private. The proselytes he had thus 
far gained had been won over from among the 
circle of his imlnediate friends and connexions. 
The time had nö,v conle, he affirmed, when the 
Lord cOlllmanded him to make his message pub- 
licly known, beginning. ,vith his kindred of the 
tribe of Koreish. "0 thou covered, arise and 
preach, and magnify thy Lord."* " And admonish 
thy more near relations."t To this end he directed 
Ali to prepare a generous entertainment, and in- 
vite to it the sons and descendants of Abdol Mo- 
talleb, where, when they were all convened, he 
would formally divulge to them the solemn fact of 
his apostolic commission. Some disturbance, oc- 
casioned by Abu Laheb, caused the company to 
break up before he had an opportunity of effecting 
his purpose, which induced him to give them a se- 
cond invitation on the ensuing day. About forty 
of them accordingly assembled around his board, 
when the prophet arose, and thus addressed his 

 Koran, chi Ixxiv. 

t Ch. xxvi. 



\vonùering guests :-" I kno,v 110 man in the ,vhole 
peninsula of the Arabs ,vho can propose any thing 
more excellent to hi::, relations than ,vhat I no\v do 
to you; I offer you happiness both in this life and 
in that ,vhich is to conIe; God _\lmighty hath rom- 
manded me to call you unto him; ,,,ho therefore 
among you ,vill be nlY vi.jcr (as
istallt), and ,,,ill 
bcconle my brother and vicegerent 1" General 
astonishment kept the assembly silent; none of- 
fered to accept the prof1ercd office till the fiery .Ali 
burst forth anù ùeclared that he ,youlù be the 
brother anù assistant of the prophet. " I," said 
he, "0 prophet of God, ,viII be thy vizier; I Iny- 
self ,vill beat out the teeth, pull out the eyes, rip 
open the bellies, and cut 01f the legs, of an tho
,vho shall dare to oppose theC'." The prophet 
caught the young proselyte ill his dTInS, exclaim- 
ing, "This is my brother, nlY deputy, my succes- 
sor ; 
ho'v yourselveb obedient unto him." At 
this apparently extravagant command, the "hole 
company burst into laughter, telling Abu Taleb 
that he must no,v pay obedience and submis
ion to 
his O'VD son! As word
 wel e multiplied, surprise 
began to give ,vay to indignation, the serious pre- 
tensions of the prophet ,vere seriously resented, 
and in the i
sup the a
senlbly broke up in confu- 
sion, affording the ardent apostle but slender pros- 
pects of success among his kinsmen. 
Undeterred by the failure of hi:s first public at- 
tempt, :\Iohammed began to preach still more 
openly before the people of l\Iecca. He an- 
nowlced to them that he ,vas commissioned by tÞc 



Almighty to be his prophet on the earth; to assert 
the unity of the Divine Being; to denounce the 
worship of images; to recall the people to the 
true and only religion; to bear the tidings of para- 
dise to the believing; and to. threaten the deaf and 
unbelieving with the terrible vengeance of the 
. Lord. His main doctrine, and that ,vhich consti- 
tutes the distinguishing character of the I(oran is, 
that there is but one God; that he only is' to be 
worshipped; and that all idolatry is a foul abolni- 
nation, to be utterly abolished. The 112th ch. of 
the Koran, entitled." The Declaration of God's 
Unity," is held in the most profound veneration by 
the Mohammedans, and declared, by a tradition öf 
the prophet, to be equal in value to a third part of 
the whole Koran. It is said to' have been re- 
, . 
vealed in answer to the I(oreish, who inquired of 
the apostle concerning the distinguishing attributes 
of the God whom he invited them to ,vorship. It 
consists of a single sentence. " In the name of 
the most merciful God. Say, God is one God; 
the eternal God; he begetteth not, n
ither is he 
begotten: and there is not anyone like unto him." 
In the incessant repetition of this doctrine in -the 
pages of the Koran, the author is aÎ1ning not only 
at the grosser errors of pol ytheisnl and idolatry, 
then common alllong the Eastern nations, but is 
leveUing a blo,v also at the fundamental tenet of 
Christianity, that Jesus Christ is the son of God, 
"the only begotten of the Father." Like others 
in other ages, Mohammed could conceive of 110 
mode of understanding the doctrine of the filia- 



tion of Christ, as held by Christians, ,vhich did 
not directly Jnilitate ,,,,ith the truth of thc c:ssf'ntial 
unity of thp 'J()
t IIigh; aud in hi
 vic\v th(' first- 
born of ab
urdities ,vas, to afiìnn in the saIne 
breath that Uhrist ,vas the :son of God, and yet 
coequal (lnd cueternal with the Father. 'I'he K e,,' 
talllellt declarations, thcr{{orc, rc
pcctillg the 
person and character of the ì\Iessiah finù no Juercy 
at the hanòs of the a\Ithur of the [{.oran, ,vho 
{1ither had not the candour or the capacity to dis- 
crinunate bC\Veell the doctrine of the 'frillity and 
that of Trithcisln. " 0 ye ,,-ho have received th(' 
, (',-ceed not the just houndH in )' our re- 
ligion, neither say of God any other than the 
truth. "-i. e. f'ither by rC'jecting Jesus as the J e"r::> 
do, or by raising hÏ1n to au equality" ith God a
do the Chri
tialls. " Verily, Christ J csu
, the son 
Iary, is the apostle of God, and his ,vord, 
hich he conve) cd into ::\I ary, and a spirit pro- 
cceding froln hÏ1n. Bclievc, therefore, in God and 
his apostles, and say not there are three Gods; 
forbear this; it ,vill be bptter for you. G ad i
hut one God. Far be it Croln hinl that he should 
have a son! Unto hilll bclongeth ,vhat
oevcr is in 
heaven and on earth; and he is suflicient unto 
hirnself."" u 'rhcy are certainly infidels \vho say, 
Verily, God is Christ the son of _\Iary. \Vhoever 
shall give a cOlnpanion unto (;od, God shall ex- 
clude him fro111 paradi
e, and his habitation shall 
be hell-fire. 'fhey are certainly in.fidel
 ,vho say 
God is the third of three: for there is no God be . 

11 Koran, ch. iv. 



sides one God. Christ, the son of Mary, is no 
more than an apostle; and his mother was a 
,voman of veracity: they both ate food. "* "There 
is no God but he: the curse be on those whom 
they associate with him in his worship."t 
With this fundamental article of the Moslem 
creed, Mohammed connected that of his being, 
since Moses and Jesus, the only true prophet of 
God. " We gave unto the children of Israel the 
book of the la\v, and ,visdoln, and. prophecy ; and ,ve 
fed them ,vith good things, and preferred them above 
all nations: and we gave thenl plain ordinances 
concerning the business of- religion. Afterward 
we appointed thee, 0 Mohammed, to promulgate. 
a law concerning the business of religion: where- 
fore follow the same, and follow not the desires or: 
those who are ignorant."t The object of his mis- 
sion, he affirmed, ,vas not so much to deliver to the 
world an entirely new scheme of religion, as to 
restore and replant the only true and ancient faith 
professed by the patriarchs and prophets, from 
Adam down to Christ. "Thus have we revealed 
unto thee an Arabic Koran, that thou mayest ,varn 
the metropolis of IVlecca, and the Arabs who d\vel1 
round about it. He hath ordained you the religion 
which he commanded Noah, and ,vhich we have 
reve"aled unto thee, 0 Mohammed, and which ,vc 
commanded Abrahaln, and Moses, and Jesus; say.. 
ing, Observe this religion, and be not divided there- 
in. Wherefore, invite them to receive the sure 
faith, and be urgent with them as thou hast been 
* Koran, ch. v. t Ch. ix. t Ctt. xlv. 



cOllunanùed." 1'his revival anù rc..rstahlishmcnt 
of the aneient faith, he taught, "ras to be eficcted by 
purging it of the idolatrou
 notions of the Arabs, 
anù of the corruption
 of the J e'vs and Christians. 
For ,,,hilC' he admits the fact tlutt the books of the 
Old and Ke,v Testaments ,vereoriginally,vritten by 
inspiration, he at the saIne tÏ1ne maintains, that they 
have been since so. shamefully corrupteù by thcir 
r spect Ï\rc disciplcs, that the prcsent copies of both 
are uttcrly un,vQrthy of credit; and therefore, he 
sc Idon1 quotes then1 in the I
oran accorùing to the 
received text. From the follo,ving c>..tract
, the 
reader ,vill perceive ho,v unsparingly the re:storcr 
of the prinÜtÏ,re faith deals forth his rebul\.es upon 
those ,vho Iiad ,vilfully adulterated and disfigured 
it. " 0 ye "rho have recrived the Seriptur('
, ,vhy 
do ye clothe truth ,vith vanity, and,villgl y hiùe 
the' truth ?-
\nd there are certainly SOlne of 
the111 ,vho read the Scriptures perversely, that ye 
Inay think ,vhat they read to be really in the :Scrip.. 
, yet it i::; not in the Scriptures; and they say, 
this is froln God; but it i
 not fronI God; and they 
:speak that ,vhich is false concerning ({od, against 
their o,vn kno,vledge."* ,,"Therefore, becaube 
they have hroken thcir covenant, ,vet have cur
t.hem, ånd hardened their hearts; they dislocate 
the ,vords of the Pentateuch frOln their places, anù. 
have forgotten part of ,vhat they,yere achnonisl1cd ; 

* Koran, ch. lii. 
t The reader will notice that notwithstan(]jng 
Iohammpd's ;;trcnUOU9 
asscrtion of God's absolute unitv. and his e,-ecrations of thf)"ic who as. 
crib(' to him" a....sotiates," } (:t ,,:hen he introduces him spt;dking in tho 
Kordll it is 1..1..iually in the pimal number. 



and ,vilt thou not cease to discover the deceitful 
practices an10ng them, except a fe,v of then1?" 
"0 ye \vho have received the Scriptures, no,v is 
our apostle come unto you, to make manifest unto 
you lTIany things 'v hich ye have concealed in the 
Scriptures."* . 
In the ex
cution of his high behest, he declared 
hilnself appointed to promulge a ne",'" revelation 
in successive portions, the aggregate of ,vhich ,vas 
to constitute the Bible of his follo,vers. The ori- 
ginal or archetype of the Koran, t he taught, ,vas. 
laid up froll1 everlasting in the archives of Heaven, 
being ,vritten on 'v hat he termed the preserved ta- 
ble, near to the throne of God, from which the series 
of chapters communicated by Gabriel ,vere a tran- 
script. This pretended gradual mode of revelation 
was certainly a master stroke of policy in the im- 
postor. ""fhe unbelievers say, unless the Koran 
be sent do,vn to him entire at once, we will not be- 
lieve. But in this Inanner have we revealed it that 
'vc might confirn1 thy heaJt thereby, and we have 
dictated it gradually by distinct parcels."t Had 
the ,vhole YOhlllle been published at once, so that 
a rigid examination could have been instituted into 
its contents as a ,vhole, and the different parts 
brought into comparison with each. other, glaring 
tcncies ,vonld have been easily detected, 
and objections urged which he would probably have 
found it ÏInpossible to ans\ver. But by pretending 
to receive his. oracles in separate portions, at dif- 

* Koran, ell. v. 

t See Appendix C. 

t Koran, eh. xxv. 



fPTcnt t iln(h." 
HTording as his o,vn cxig f'I1CeS or 
tho:-:e of hi
 fol]o\\rer5 Tf'quircù, h<:, had a reaùy ,vay 
of silencing all cavils, ((lid c"\.tri('ating hin1sclf ,vith 
credit from e, ery dif1ìc:ulty, as nothing forh(ulc the 
age or Ju:ulùate of to-day being JJlodi1ìcd or 
abrogated by that of to-nlOrrO\\. Iu this Jnann(lr, 
hvcnty-three years clap
cù bcfi)re the ,vhoh 1 chain 
of rpYelatiollS "ras conlpletcù, though the prophet 
inlònneù his disciples that he had the consolation of 
sc('ing thf' (lntirc J(oran, uound in silk and aùor])('d 
,vith gold anù gcnu:; of })aradi
c, once a Yf'ar, tiIJ, in 
the last year of his liG\, Ii("' wa
 t;l\ ourcù \\ ith the 
vi:sion hvicf\. A pal t of these spurious oracles "rcrc 
published at 'Iccca before his flight, the rClllainùer 
I('ùina after it. '[,hl\ particular 11l0ÙC of publica- 
tion i
 said to ha, e been thÏb: \Vhen a IH"V chap- 
tcr had been cOlnulunicatcù to the prophet, and ,vas 
ahout to be prolnulQ"ated fi)r the bClle1it of the 
".orId, he first di(.tatcd it to his sccretary, and then 
deli,rcrf'd the '\TittCll paper to his follu', ers, to be 
read and repeateù till it had bccolue 1ìnllly inl- 
printeù upon their menloric
, ".hcn the papflT 'vas 
again returned to the prophet, ,vho Cdff'fully ùepo- 
sited it in a chest, called by hilll " the chest of 
his apostleship..' The hint of this sarred cuffer 
,vas doubtless taken fronl the ...\rk of the Covenant, 
the holy chest of the J e,,-ish tabernacle, in ,vhich 
the authentic copy of the hnv "ras laid up and pre- 
ser,-eù. 'rhi
Iohalnmcù left at his death 
in the care of one of his ,vives; anù fronl its con- 
tents the vohuue of the I\::oran "as after\vard com- 
rhe first collection and arrangement of 



thcse. prophetic relio.", Inore precious than the sc31.- 
tered leaves of all the Sybils, was Inade by Abu- 
bcker, but the ,vhole ,vas after\vard revised and 
nc,v-rl1odelled by Othman, ,vho left the entire vo- 
lume of the I(oran in the order in \vhich ,ve no\v 
have it. 
Mohalnmed's first reception by the mass of his 
fellow-citizens of Mecca ,vas scarcely more hope- 
ful than it had been among his kindred. His al- 
leged divine luessages, especially when theyas.. 
sumed a tone of reprehension and reproach towards 
his countrymen, for. their idolatry, obstinacy, and 
perverseness, ,vere met ,vith indignant scoffs and 
railings. Some called him a magician and a sor- 
cerer; others, a silly retailer of .old fables; and 
others direct! y charged hiIn with being a liar and 
an impostor. The reader ,vill be alnused and in- 
terested by the insertion of a few out of the scores 
of allusions, ,vith which the I\:oran abounds, to the 
profane and contemptuous treatment sho,vn to- 
wards the prophet at this time. ." The IVleccans 
. say,.O thou, to whom the admonition (the Koran) 
hath been sent down, thou art certainly possessed 
with a devil: wouldst not thou have come unto 
us with .an attendance of angels if thou hadst 
spoken the truth 1 Ans,ver, \tVe send not do\vn the 
angels but on a just occasion."* " V crily I have 
permitted these Meccans and their fathers to live 
in prosperity, till the truth should come unto them, 
and a manifest apostle: but now the truth is come 

· Koran, ch. vi. 

LIFE Oli' IOllAM)[ED. 


unto them, they say, this is a piece of sorcery; 
and ,\ (' believe not thpfein. AIHI thc-y 
ay, IIad 
 Koran been sent dO'Vll lUltO 801110 great luan 
in either of tile t\vo cities, ,ve ,vould have receiycd 
it.". "rrhe time of giving up their aCl"ount dra,vcth 
nigh unto the people of !\Iecca. Xo a<hnonition 
cometh unto theIn fronl thcir Lord, but ,vhen th(\y 
hear it tht)Y turn it to 
port. Thcy 
ar, rrhc 1(0- is a confused heap of drcalns: nay, he hath 
forged it. '.t h .A.nd the unbelievers say, this I\:oran 
 no other than a forgery \vhich he hath contri\'cd ; 
and other people have as
i:stcù hitn therein: but 
they uttcr an unjust thincr and a falsehood. 'fhey 
also say, rrhe
C' are Ülbles of the ancients, ,,-hich he 
hath causeù to be ,vritten ùo,,-n; and they are dic- 
tated unto hiln Illorning and evening. Say, lIe 
hath revealed it ,yho kno,veth the 
 in hea- 
ven anù earth. And they say, "11at 1.ind of apostle 
is this 1 lIe eateth food, and ,valketh in the streets 
"as ,ve do. The ungodly al
o say, Y c follo,v no 
other than a l11an ,vho is distracted."t ""?hen our 
evident signs are rehearsed unto theI11, the unbe- 
lievers say of the truth, rrhis is a manifc-st piece of 
sorcery. 'ViII they say, l\Iohal11med hath forged 
it ? Ans,vcr, If I have forged it, verily, ye ,,-ill 
not obtain for IllC' any favour from God: he ,veIl 
kno,vetn the injurious hUlguage ,,-hich ye utter 
concerning it. --I follo,v no other than ,vhat is 
revealed unto me; neither am I any more than a 
public \\ arner."

* Koran) ch. xliii. 

t Ch. :xxi. t Ch. XAV. 
 Ch. xlvi. 



But these stiff-necked idolaters ,vere plainly 
taught that they \vere not to prolnise theu1selves 
iInpunity in thus pouring contempt upon the testi- 
lTIOny of an authorized legate of heaven. The 
1\lost High hitnself was brought in confirming by 
an oath the truth of his prophet's mission. " I 
s,vear by that which ye see and that which ye see 
not, that this is the discourse of an honourable 
apostle, and not the discourse of a poet: how 
little do ye believe ! Neither is it the discourse of 
a soothsayer: ho,v little are ye admonished! It 
is a revelation from the Lord of all creatures. If 
Mohammed had forged any part of these dis- 
courses concerning us, verily we had taken him 
by the right hand, and had cut in sunder the vein 
of his heart; neither would we have \vithheld any 
of you from chastising him. And verily, this book 
is an adm9niti
n unto . the pious; and .we ,veIl 
}illO'V there are some of you who charge the same 
,vith Imposture: but it shall surely be an occa- 
sion of grievous sighing unto the infidels; for it is 
the truth of a certainty."* "Because he i.s an 
adversary to our signs, I ,viII afflict him ,vith 
grievous calamities; for he hath devised contume- 
lious expressions to ridicule the Koran. May 
he be cursed! I will cast him to be burned in 
hell. And ,vhat shall make thee understand what 
hell is? It leaveth. not any thing unconsumed, 
neither cloth it suffer any thing to escape; It 
searcheth men's flesh; over the same are nineteen 

* Koran, ch, b...Í1t 



nngels "ppointcd. 'Ve have appointed none but 
ang-cls to presiùe over hell-fire." " Verily vte 
have prepared for the unhelievers rhain
, and col- 
lars, and burning fire. "t " Verily tho
e ,,-ho dis- 
believe our signs "e ,,-ill. surely cast out to be 
broiled in heIl-fire: alld. ,\ l1f1n tlll'ir 
JJns :shall be 
,veIl burneù, .,ye ,vill give thenl other skins in ex- 
change, that they may taste the sharper torment."! 

1r Koran, ell. lxxi v. 

t Ch. xi. 

: Cb. Iv. 




Mohammed !,--ot discouraged by Opposition-The burden qf his Preach- 
ing-Description qf Paradise-Er7'Or to suppose Women excluded- 
Of Hell-Gains some Followers-Challenged to work a Miracle- 
His Reply-The Koran the grand JIiracle qf his Religion
Obduracy charged upon the Unbelievers. 

BUT no repulses, ho,vever rude or rebellious, 
operated to deter the prophet from prosecuting his 
apostolic ministry. No injuries or insults, ho,v- 
ever galling, availed to quench that glow of phi- 
lanthropy, that earnest solicitude for the salvation 
of his countrymen, for which his divine revela- 
tions plainly give him credit. "Peradventure, thou 
affiictest thyself unto death lest t
e IVleccans be- 
come not true believers."* " Verily, God will 
cause to err \vhom he pleaseth, and ,,,ill direct 
whom he pleaseth. Let not thy soul, therefore be 
spent in sighs for their sakes, on account of their 
obstinacy; for God ,veIl knoweth that which they 
do.'.t And it musJ be ackno,vledged, that'his firm- 
ness at this stage of his career, in the lnidst of 
bitter opposition, opprobrious taunts, anù relentless 
ridicule, has very much the air of having been 
pro1l1pted by a sincere though enthusiastic belief 
in the truth and rectitude. of his cause. The 
scope of several chapters of the Koran pronlul- 
gated at this time leads to the same impression. 

· Koran, ch. xxvi. 

t ChI xxxv. 



'fhey are strikingly hortatory anù impassioned ill 
their character, inculcating the being and l)crfcc- 
tions of the one onl) t
où, the vanity of idols, a 
future rcsurrection, a ùay of judgnlcllt, a state of 
re,varùs anù punishnlcllt:S, and the necessity of 
,yorks of rightcuusness. 'fhe marks of ilnpos- 
turc are llluch lllorc ùiscerniLle upon thc pagc
subsequí'utly revcalpù, in ,vhich the prophet hat! 
private ()n
s of a sinistC'r nature to accolnplish. 
Uut he contcllteù not hinlself v,-ith 11lcrely preach- 
ing in public assculhlies, and proclailnillg in streets 
and markct-places the 
olerl1n and {l\vakening 
burden of his lncssage. 'Vith a cal ,vorthy of a 
better cause, and ,vith a persevcrance and patience 
that might serve as a nlodcl to a Chri
tian mis- 
sionary, he backed his public appeals by private 
addresses, and put in requi
ition all the arts of per- 
suasion and prosclrtisln, in ,vhich he was so cn1i- 
nently skilled. lIe applicd hitnself in the most 
insinuating manner to all classes of people; he 
,vas conlplaisant and liberal to thp poor, cultivating 
their acquaintance and relieving their ,vants; the 
rich and noble he soothed by flattery; and bore 
affronts ,,,ithout seeking to avcnge them. The 
cffe<:t of this politic nlanagclnellt ,vas greatly en- 
hanced by the peculiar character of those inspired 
promises and threatcllings ,vhich he brought. to 
enforce his Inessage. 
I-lis promises ,vere chiefly of a blissful paradise 
in another life; and these he studiously aimed to 
set forth in colours best calculated to work upon 
the fancies of a sensitive and sensual race, ,vhose 



minds, in consequence of their national habits, 
"Tere little susceptible of the images of abstract 
elljoYlnent. The notions of a purely intellectual 
or spiritual happiness pertain to a more cultivated 
people. 1'he scorching heat 
f those tropical re- 
gions, the aridness of the soil, and the consequent 
lack of a verdant vegetation, made it natural to the 
Arabs, and other oriental nations, to . conceive of 
the n10st exquisite scenes of pleasure under the 
images of rivers of ,vater, cooling drinks, flo,very 
gardens, shaded bo,vers, and luscious fruits. The 
Inagnificence also of many of the Eastern build- 
ings, their temples and palaces, \vith the sunlptu- 
ousness of their dresses, the pon1p of processions, 
and the splenrlour of courts, \vould all tend to 
n1ingle in their ideas of the highest state of en- 
joyn1ent an abundance of gold an
 silyer and pre- 
cious stones-treasures for ,vhich the East has 
been famed from time imlnelnorial. l\Iohammed 
was \vell a\vare that a plenitude of these visible 
and palpable attractions, to say nothing of grosser 
sources of pleasure, ,vas an indispensable requi- 
site in "i heaven suited to the telnperament of his 
countrymen. Accordingly, he assures the faith- 
ful, that they shall enter into delectable gardens, 
'\vhere the rivers flo\v, some ,vith ,vater, some ,vith 
wine, l30rne \vith lnilk, and some with clarified 
honey; that there ,viII be fountains and purling 
streanlS ,vhose pebbles are rubies and enleralds, 
their earth of calnphirc, their beds of lllusk, and 
their sides of saffron. In feasting upon the ban- 
quets of paradise. at one time the lnost delicious 



fruits shall hang deppnd(-'nt from the branches of 
the trec
 undcr ,vhi("h thpir couches are spread, so 
that thpy have only to r lach forth th(\ir hands to 
pluck the111; again, they 
halI bc 
prv('d ill di
of gold JiIlpd" ith cyery variety of gratcful food, 
anù supplied ,vith ,viuc of alubrosial flayour. But 
the prophet"s o\vn glo\\ ing picturcs of the joys of 
his promised paraùi
(1 ,vill do nlore justice to the 
subjcct. " 'fhey shall repose on couches, the lin- 
ings ,vhereof shall be of thick silk inter,yo, en ,vith 
gold; and the fruit of the t\\
O gardens shall be 
near at' hand to gathf'r. 'fherein shall recpivc 
thrnl hcauteous dtllllsels, refraining their eyes from 
beholding any bf'sidt.s their spouses, haying conl- 
plcxions Iikp rubies aud pearls. Besides these 
there shall be 1\\'0 oth('r gardens that shall be 
dresseù in ctcrnal yprdure. In each of them 
shall be t" 0 fountains pouring fOlih plenty of 
,vater. In each of them shall be fruits, and palm- 
trees, and pOlnegranah-s. 'rherein shall be agree- 
ãble anù bcantpous ùalnsclR, haying fine black 
eyes, and kept in pavilions from publir vic,"y, 
,,-holn no man :shall have dishonoured before their 
predestined spouses, Hor any genius." " 'fhey 
shall d\vell in gardens of delight, rppo
ing un 
eouches adorned ,vith gold and precious stones; 
sitting opposite to one another thereon. )T outlls, 
,vhich shall continue in their bloom for pver, shan 
go round about to attend thcln, ,,
ith goblets and 
beakers, and a cup of 110\\ ing ,yine: their heads 
shetH not aehe by drinking the same, neither shall 
thrir reason be disturbed." "{J pon thenl shall be 



garments of fine green silk, and of brocades, aud 
they shall be adorned ,vith bracelets of silver, and 
their Lord shall give them to drink of a most pure 
liquor-a cup of ,vine mixed with the ,vater of 
Zenjebil, a fountain in paradise named Salsabil." 
" But those' who believe and ùo that ,vhicþ is right, 
,ve ,viII bring into gardens watereù by rivers, 
therein shall they remain for ever, and therein 
shall they enjoy ,vives free from all infirmities; 
and we ,viII lead them into perpetual abodes." 
" For those who fear their Lord ,vill be prepared 
high apartments in paradise, over ,vhich shall be 
other apartments built; and rivers shall run be- 
neath then1." "But f{)r the pious is prepared a 
place of bliss: gardens planted ,yith trees, and 
vineyards, and dalnsels of equal age ,yith thelU.. 
selves, and a full cup.",*, 
Such is the Mohalnmedan paradise, rendered 
alluring by its gross, carnal, and luxurious cha- 
racter. It cannot indeed be denied that there are 
occasional intimations, in the l\:oran, of son1C kind 
of spiritual happiness to be enjoyed by the pious 
in addition to their corporeal pleasures. " 'rheir 
prayer therein shall be, Praise be unto thee, 0 
God! and t
leir salutation therein shall be, Peace! 
and the end of their prayer shall be
 Praise be 
unto God, the Lord of all creatures."t But it is 
beyond question, that the Inain ingredients in the 
anticipated happiness of the Moslen1 saints are of 
a sensual kind, addressed to the inferior principles 

'* Koran, ch. iii. iv. x.xxvi. xxxvii. :.\.liii. xlvii. lxxviii. 

t Ch. x. 

LIl-'E 01;" 310 IIAJI 1f ED. 


of our nature, and Inaking th{lir pilraòis
 to dif- 
fer but little from the ElrsiuDl of the heathen 
The rcadcr of th{\ I
oran ,yiI1 meet ,,'ith fC- 
pcatcd declarations subYcr
ivc of the vulgar opi- 
nion, that the religion of 
lohaJUnlCd ùcnies to 
"omen the poss('

iün of sou1s, and excludes 
thenI fronl aU participation in the joys of paradise. 
'Yhatcycr Inay have been iInagincù or a1Iìmlcd on 
this point by some of his luorc ignorant follo"rers, it 
 (.('rtain that ì\Iohanlmrd him
l'lf thought too 
highly of 'YOlllll1 to inculcate any 
uch doctrinr, as 
the follo,ving passages ".ill ('vince: "\Vhoso doeth 
hall be rc,vardcd f()r it; and shall not finù any 
patron or hrlpcr hc
idcs (:od; hut ,,,hoso docth 
good ,vorks, "ll(
thcr he be Inalc or female, anù is 
a true bclicycr, they shall be adluittcd into para- 
dise, and shan not in th(' lëast be unjustly dealt 
,vith.". j", ''fhc rc".arù of these shall be paradise, 
gardens of ctcrnal abode,,, hich thcy shall enter, 
and ,,-hocyer shall have acted uprightly, of their 
fathers, and th{lir ,yiYr
, and their posterity; and 
the angels shall go in unto thenl by eyery gatt', 
saying, Peace be upon you, because ye have en- 
(lured ".ith patience; ho,v excellent a rc,vard is 
p3.radise !"t . 
If these vivid representations of the future bliss 
of the faithful ,vcrc calculatcd to ".ork strongly 
upon the passions of his hearers, his denunciations 
of the fearful tonncnts rescrycd for unbelievers, 

· Koran, ch. iv. 

t Ch. xiii. 




,vere equally ,vell fitted to produce the sanie ef- 
fect. The lnost revolting images of bodily suf
fering, hunger, thirst, the torture of fire, and the 
anguish of piercing cold, were sUlnmoned up by 
the preacher to alafln the ,vorkers of evil, and to 
call off the ,vorshippers of idols from their im- 
piety. " But for the transgressors is prepared an 
evil receptacle, namely hell: they shall be cast 
into the same to be burned, and a wretched couch 
shall it be." "And they ,vho believe not shall 
have garments of fire fitted unto them: boiling 
,vater shall be poured on their heads; their.bow. 
els shall be dissolved thereby, and also their skins; 
and they shall be beaten ,vith maces of iron. So 
often as they shall endeavour to get out of hell, 
because of the anguish of their torments, they 
shall be dragged back into the same; and their 
tormentors shall say unto them, r-faste ye the pain 
of burning. ,,* "It shall be said unto them, Go 
ye into the punishillent which ye denied as a false- 
hood: go ye into the shado,v of the sInoke of 
hell, which shall ascend in three colunlns, and 
shall not shade you from the heat, neither shall it 
be of service against the flame; but it shall cast 
forth sparks as big as towers, resembling yellow 
camels in colour. "t "Hath the n.ews of the 
over,vhehning day of judgnlent reached thee? 
The countenances of some, on that day, shall be 
cast do\vn; labouring and toiling; they shall be 
cast into a scorching fire to be broiled: they s'h

 Koran, ch. xvii. 

t Ch. lxxviti. 



be gÏ\ en to drink of a boiling fountain: they!-\11all 
have no tood but of dry thorns and thistles; 
hall not f\ttcl} neither shall they satisfy 
hlulgcr." "Is this a bettC'r entertainment, or the 
trce of Al Zacculn? IIo,v ditTprcnt is the tree \1 
r AaCCtl1n from tho abode of EÙCll! ,\ c have 
planted it for the torment of the ,vicked. It is a 
tree ,vhich issueth frolJl the bottonl of hell: tlHI 
1ruit thereof rescmblcth the heads of devils; and 
the daJnned shall eat of the san1e, anù shall1ìll 
their bellies thcre,vith; anù there shall be given 
theu1 thereon a mixture of filthy anù boiling ,vater 
to drink: afterwclrd shall they return into hell.'- 
Such ,vas the burden of his exhortations, ,\.hi]e 
he ,varneù the people of the danger of unbc lif\(, 
and urgeù them by his eloquence to avoid eter- 
nal damnation hy putting faith in the apostle of 
God. In addition to these po"
erful motiy(\
n from anothC'r ,vorId, he ,
,.as lavi"h in the 
mcnaces of fearful punishments in this life also, if 
they hearkened not to his voice. For this pur- 
pose, he set before them the caIan1Ïtics ,vhich had 
overtaken those ,vho, in fornler tilnes, had refused 
to listen to the prophets sent alDong then1. " Do 
they not consider ho,v luany generations ,ve have 
destroyed before them? Other apostles have 
been laughed to scorn before thee, but the judg- 
Jnents ,\
hi('h they made a jest of ellC0111paSsed 
those who laughed them to .scorn. Say, Go 
through the earth, and behold ,vhat has been the 

" Kn'-an, rh. xxxvii. 



end of those who accused our prophets of impos- 
ture."* " 'Ve have already sent nlessages unto 
sundry nations before thee, and we afflicted them 
,vith trouble and adversity, that they might humble 
themselves: yet ,vhen the affliction ,vhich we 
sent came upon thelll, they ùid not hluuble them- 
selves; but their hearts became hardened, and 
Satan cåused them to find charms in rebellion. 
And ,vhen they had forgotten that concerning 
,\rhich they had been aùnlonished, we suddenly 
laid hold on them, and behold they "
ere seized 
'\vith despair; and the utmost part of the people 
,vhich had acted wickedly ,vas cut off: praise be 
unto God, the Lord of all creatures !"t He cited 
the case of the inhabitants of the old world, who 
perished in the deluge for not giving heed to the 
preaching of Noah; of Sodom, over,vhelmed by 
fire for not receiving the admonition of Lot; and 
of the Egyptians, ,vho ,vere buried in the Red 
Sea for despising lVIoses. 'ro give still greater 
effect to his ,varnings, and ingratiate himself into 
the favour, as ,veIl as to a,vaken the fears, of his 
auditors, he took repeated occasions to allege his 
entire disinterestedness in the ,vork in ,vhich he 
'V3S engaged. He preached because he was com- 
manded to preach, and not because he intended 
covertly to make gain of his hearers. lIe there- 
fore boldly takes them to ,vitness that he de- 
manded no compensation for his services. He 
looked to a higher source for re,vard. " But \ve 

*Koran ch. vi. 

t Ch. vi. 

LIJ..'E OF '10IlA:U:ULD. 


bave brou
ht them their admonition; and they 
turn aside frolD their admonition. Do
t thou ask 
of them any maintenance for thy preaching 1 since 
the maintenance of thy Lord is better; for h{\ is 
the nlo
t bOlmtcous pro' iller." " " (. ha\ P sent 
thee to be no other than a ùearer of gooù tiilingt;, 
and a dcnouncpr of threats Say, I ask not of 
you any rr'\vanl for this nlY prcaching, hc:,ide.; the 
convcrsion of hilll "yho shall dcsire to take the 
"yay unto his l..ord.'''t As the prophet therefore 
disclaim(:J all sini.,ter yic,vs in the 

C'cntion of 
his oftice, as he e
prc:-;:-\ly renounceù the f'>...pcct- 
ancy of any earthly advantage ,,-hatc\' "')". so he 
""as comman(led to divest his nlind of all undue 
an"\.icty 3S to th(1 rr
ult of hí
 labours of Jove. 
h 0 apostle, let not thenl grievc thee ,\'ho hasten 
to infidelity.' " ""hoc;o is \vilfully blind, the con- 
sequence "Till b
 to hinl::Jclf. \Ve have nut ap... 
pointcd thee a keeper ovcr thcln: neithcr art thou 
a guardian oyer then1." " .A.nù be not thou grieved 
on account of the llnbelieyers, neither be thou 
troubled for that '\vhieh they subtly devisc."t 
11 is not therefore to be ,vondereù at that the 
rousing appeals of the prophet should have taken 
effect; that one aftf1r anotht'1" should have listened 
-pondered-\\Ta\rercd-and yielded-especially 
as the gravity and sanctity of his deportlncnt seCln, 
at this time, to have corresponded "rith the solcmn 
strain of his expostulations. Such accordingly 
""as the fact. rrhe nun1ber of his follo\\yers gra- 

,. Koran, ell. xxiü. 

t rh. xIii. 

 Ch. xvi. 



dually increased, so that in five years from the 
commencement of his mission, his party, including 
himself, amounted to forty. 
That ,vhich operated more than any thing else 
to disconcert the impostor was the demand re- 
peatedly nlade upon hin1 to prove the truth of his - 
lnission by working a miracle. " l\Ioses and J e- 
sus," said his hearers," and the rest of the pro- 
phets, according to thine own doctrine, wrought 
nliracles to prove then1selves sent of God. Now 
if thou be a prophet, and greater than any that 
,vere before thee, as thou boastest, let us see a 
miracle froln thee also. Do thou 1nake the dead 
to rise, the dumb to speak, the deaf to hear; or 
else cause fountains to spring out of the earth, and 
111ake this place a garden adorned with vines and 
palm trees, and watered with rivers running 
through it in divers channels; or do thou make 
thee a house of gold beautified with je,vels and 
costly furniture; or let us see the book which 
thou allegest to have come do,Vll from heaven, or 
the angel ,vhich thou say est brings it unto thee, 
and ,ve ,vil1 believe." This natural and not un- 
reasonable demand, he had, as we learn from the 
Koran, several ,vays of evading. At one time, he 
tells them he is only a man sent to preach to them 
the rewards of paradise and the punishments of 
hell. "The infidels say, unless a sign be sent 
unto him from his Lord, we will not believe. 
'Thou art .commissioned to be a preachcr only, and 
not a \vorker of miracles."* "Answer, Signs are 
11< Koran, ch. xiii. 



m the po,,"er of God alone; and I 
nn no more 
than a public prctlchcr. Is it not sufficient for 
them that ,vc have sent do" n mlto thec the bOùk 
of the !{oran, to be reaù unto them 1". " 'Ve 
sent not our lllc:=;scngcr:; othcr,vi
c than bearil1g 
good tidings and denowlcinu threats. Say, 1 say 
not unto you, 'fhe tTcasuTcs of God are in my 
pO".tf: neither do I say, I kno,v the sccret::> of 
od: neithcr do I.say unto you, Verily 1 anI an 
angel: I follo,v only that ".hich is revealed 1Into 
JHe. 't'lt l\t another, that their predecc

ors had 
cd the n1Ïraclcs of the fonner prophets, and 
for this reason God ,,"ould ,vorl no JTIorc 
thcIll. ,Again, that those \\.hOlIl God had orùain .J 
to believe, should believe ,,'ithout Iniraeles, '\ihile 
thc haplcbs non-elcct, to,vhom he had not decrced 
the gift of h1itb, would not belicyc though ever 
so Juan Y Juiracles 'vcre ,,'rought before them. 
" ...\nù though "re had sent do,vn angels unto them, 
and the dead had 8pOhC11 unto thcIn, they ,vould 
not have belieycd, unless God had 
o pleased."t 
., If their aversion to thy admonitions be grievous 
Imto thee, jf thou canst seck a ùen "rhereby thou 
lnayest penetrate into the in \vard parts of the earth, 
or a ladder hy ,vhich thou maycst ascend into 
heaven, that thou nlaycst sho,v thenl a Rign, do so, 
but thy search ,vill be fruitle:5s; for if God pleased 
he ,vould bring them all to the tnle din:ction."
At a latf'r period, ,,-hcn he ,vas at l\iedilla at the 
J1eaù of an am1}"", he had a more summary 1\"ayof 

... Koran. ch. xiii. 

t Cll. vi. 

t Ibiù. 




solving all difficulties arising froln this source, for 
his doctrine then ,vas, that God had formerly sent 
Moses and Jesus ,vith the power of working" mira- 
cles, and yet lnen ,vould not believe, and there- 
fore he had now sent him, a prophet of another 
order, commissioned to enforce belief by the po'We'J" 
of the sword. The swórd accordingly was to be 
the true seal of his apostleship, and the remark 
of the historian is equally just and striking, that 
"Mohamlned, with the sword in one hand and the 
I{oran in the other, erected his throne on the ruins 
of Christianity and of Rome."* 
By some of the more credulous of tbe prophet's 
followers, there are, it is true, several miracles at- 
tributed to hin1; as that he clave the moon asun- 
der ; that trees went forth to meet him; that 
,vater flowed from between his fingers; that the 
stones saluted him; that a beam groaned at him; 
that a camel complained to him; and that a shoul- 
der of mutton informed him of its being poisoned, 
together with several others. But these lniracles 
,vere never alleged by Mohammed himself, nor are 
they maintained by any respectable Moslem wri- 
ters. The only miracle claimed either by him or 
his intel1igent votaries is the I{oran, th
tion of which is the grand miracle of their re Ii- 
gion. On this point the reader will perceive that 
the prophet's assumptions in the following pas- 
sages are high-toned indeed. " If ye be in doubt 
concerning that revelation ,vhich we have sent 

:1& Gibbon. 




ùo\vn unto our scrvant produc a chaptcr like 
unto it, and can npon rour "pÏlncsscs, bcsiùcs God, 
if } e say the truth." "Say, \T crily, if mcn and 
genü ,,"cre purposely a
s('lnblcd, that they Inight 
produc(1 a Look like thÏ:3 I\.o ran, thry could not 
protluce one like it, although the une uf thelll as- 
sÏ:3tcd the other.'''t "'Vill ther say, lIe hath 
forged the Koran? Dring thercforc tcn chapter,
lil\.e unto it, forged by rour
; and call on 
,,-hOnlSOCYCr yc may to n
sist you. "t 'fhe infatua- 
tion of the )Icccans in rejecting this inestim..tblc 
" adn1onition," stamped as it ,,-as ,vith the cvid ant 
Ï1npress of the divinity, he }}('sitate
 not to ascribe 
to the effect of a fearful judicial obstinacy, such a
the Je,vi
h prophets frequently thrcatcn against 
the pervcrse nation of Israel. " If ".e had re.. 
vealed the Koran in a for lign language, they had 
:5urely 8aid, Unless the signs thercof be distinctly 
explained, ,,-e ,viII not receive th{
 saIne: .Ans
It is unto those ,\" ho bclicve a sure guide and a 
remedy; but unto those ,vho believe not, it i8 c.L 
thickness of hearing in their ears, and it is a dark- 
ness ,vhich covercth them. "'
 "As for the unbe- 
lievers, it ,viII be equal lUltO them ,vhether thou 
aùmonish theln or do not admonish thcln; they 
\viII not believe. God hath scaled up their hearts 
and their hearing; a dinmess covereth their sight, 
and they 
hal1 suffer a grievous punishment. "11 
"There is of them \vho hearkeneth unto thee 
\vhen thou readest the I
orall; but ,ve have cast 

* Koran, ch. ii. 

 Ch. xli. 

t Ch. xVlÍ. 
1\ Ch. ii. 

t Ch xi. 



veils over their hearts, that they should not under- 
stand it, and a deafness in their ears; and though 
they should see all kinds of signs, they will not 
believe therein; and their infidelity ,viII arrive to 
that height, that they will even come unto thee to 
dispute with thee."* Still his preaching prevailed. 
He- became more and more popular; proselytes 
flocked around hÌ1n; and, as Gibbon remarks, "he 
had the satisfaction of beholding the increase of 
his infant congregation of Unitarians, who revered 
him as a prophet, and to wholn he seasonably dis- 
pensed the spiritual nourishment of the Koran. "t 

* Koran, ch. vi 

t Dec. and Fall, ch. 1. 

LIFE or 'IOJlA){)fED. 


CII.AP'f EH \ I. 

The Korrish utUperaled and alarm d by Jfollf1mmrd.s KTOW, .Uð- 
ce.fts-Comrnence persecution-Some of his fn!lfJU' II seek Iffty in. 
flight-New converts-TIle Knrei.yh form a úague 
t hl1n.- 
Abu Taleb a;ul Catlijah die-Jlt. ..ak s a tt'mp ary Rf trt!<ll from, 

{ecca-Relli.rn.tI and preach s u:ith increased zeal-oS me th 
Pilgrim.s from "Uedma converted. 

"rHE zcal of the' prophet in proclainung his doc- 
trines, tUbcthc-r ,vith the vi"ible increase uf hi'i 
fòllo,\.crs, at length alanncd the fpars of the head 
Dlen of the tribe of l\:oreish; and had it not been 
for the powerful protection of his lU1Cle', 'Iuhalu- 
11led 'vould ùoubtless at thi
 tÌ1nt" hdve fallen a 
victim to the ID.alice of his opponents. 'rhe chief 
Inen of the tribe ,varmly solicited _\bu 'falt'b to 
abandon his nephe,v, remonstrating against the 
perilous innoyations he ,vas maling in the religion 
of their fathers, and threatening hin1 ,vith an open 
rupture in case he did Dot prevail upon hÍ1n to 
desist. Their entreaties had so much "reight ,vith 
Abu Talcb, that he earnestly dis:;;uaùeù his rela- 
tive from prosecuting his attcmpted refor;nation 
any farther, representing to him in strong tenus 
the danger he ,vould incur both for hinlself and his 
friends by persisting in his present course. But 
the ardent apostle, far from being intÏJnidated by 
the prospect of opposition, frankly assured Ius 
uncle, " 'l'hat if they should set the sun against 
hiln on his right hand, and the Uloon on his left, 



yet he would not relinquish his enterprise." Abu 
1"'aleb, seeing hin1 thus determined, llsed no far- 
ther argulllents to di
ert hun, but pronlÍsed to 
stand by hÜn against all his enemies; a promise 
\vhich he faithfully kept till he died, though there. 
is no clear evidence that he ever becanle a con- 
vert to the ne,v religion. 
The Koreish, finding that they could prevail 
neither by fair words nor by menaces, had re- 
course to violence. They began to persecute his 
followers; and tc such a length did they proceed 
in their injurious treatInent, that it ,vas no longer 
safe for them to continue at lVlecca. Mohamlned 
therefore gave leave to such of then1 as had not 
friends to protect them, to seek refuge else,vhere. 
Accordingly sixteen of them, among ,vhom ,vas 
Mohan1n1ed's daughter and her husband, fled into 
Ethiopia. These were after,vard follo,ved by 
several others, \vho ,vithdre,v in successive com- 
panies, till thcir number alnounted to eighty-three 
luen, and eighteen women, with their children. 
'fhese refilgees were kinòly entertained by the 
king of Ethiopia, ,vho peremptorily refused to 
deliver then1 to the elnissaries of the Koreish sent 
to dellland theln. 'ro these voluntary exiles the 
prophet perhaps alludes in the following passage: 
"As for those who have fled from their country 
for the sake of God, after they had been unjustly 
I)crsecuted, \ve ,viII surely provide theln an excel- 
lent habitation in this ,vodd, but the re,vard of the 
next life shall be greater, if they knew it." * 

t< Koran, ch. xvi. 



In the sixth year of hi
ion, he had the 
pleasure of seeillO" hlli party strengthencù by the 
con\"crsion of his uncle lIanlza, a luan of di:,tin- 
guishcd yalour, and of Om
r, a per
on of equal 
note in 'Iccca, who haù funncrl)" Inade himself 
conspicuous by his vin1lcnt opposition to the pro- 
phct and his claims. rrhi
 new arC4.'
:--,ion to tl1(' 
rising sect c

:-\pcratrù the J{oreish afrc
 antI in- 
cited then1 to Ineasures of stilll110rc active pcr:-:c- 
cution against the pTo::>clytes. Jlut as prTscr.ution 
usually ad, ancps thp eaU:sC ,vhi('h it lahours to 
d .::;troy, 
o in the pre::; nt ca
e I
lalnisln Inad 
nlore rapid progress than ever, till the l\..o reish, 
D1{ldùcncd ,vith m,llice, entrrrJ into a soh'mn league 
or covenant against the IIa':)hellÚtc
, and especially 
the fanllly of the 1\Iotallcb, Inany or ,,'horn upheld 
the impostor, engaging to contract no marriages 
ith them, nor to hold any farther cOllnexion or 
COlluncrce of any kind; and, to gi,'c it the greater 
sanction, the cOIn pact ,\.as rcducpd to ,,"riting and . 
laid up in thp Caaba. ITpon this the tribe became' 
divided into t".o factions; the falnily of IIa
except one of 
Iohalnn1ed"s uncles, putting them- 
selves under Abu 'faleb as thcir head, alld the 
ot er party ranging themselves under the standard 
of Abu Sophyall. '-rhis league, ho,\.ever, "Tas of 
no avail during thc lifctin1c of ...\.bu 'raleb.. The 
po'\"cr of the uncle, ,vho presided in the govern.. 
luent of l\lecca, defended the nephe,v against 
the designs of his enen1Íes. At length, about the 
close of the seventh year of the. mission, Ahu 
Talcb died; and, a fe\\' days dfter his death, 1\10" 



hammed ,vas left a ,vidower, by the decease ot 
Cadijah, whose memory has been canonized by 
the saying of the prophet; "That among men 
there had been many perfect, but of women, four 
only had attained to perfection, viz. Cadij ah, his 
wife; Fatima, his daughter; Asia, the ,vife of Pha- 
raoh; and Mary (Mirialn), the daughter of Imran 
and sister of Moses." As to Abu Taleb, though 
the prophet ever cherished a most grateful sense 
of the kindness of his early benefactor, yet if the 
following passage froln the Koran has reference, 
as some of the commentators say, to his uncle, it 
sho\vs that the dictates of nature in the nephew's 
breast were thoroughly brought into subjection to 
the stern precepts of his religion. "It is not 
allowed unto the prophet, nor those who are true 
believers, that they pray for idolaters, although 
they be of kin, after it is become kno,vn unto them 
that they are inhabitants of hell." '"' This passage, 
it is said by some, was revealed on account of Abu 
rraleb, \vho, upon his death-bed, being pressed 
by his nephe,v to speak a word which Inight enable 
him to plead his cause before God, that is, to pro- 
fess Islam, absolutely refused. Mohalnmed, how- 
ever, told hin1 tbat he ,votdd not cease to pray or 
him till he should be forbidden by God; such a 
prohibition, he affirmed, ,vas given him in the 
words here cited. Others suppose the occasion to 
have been the prophet's visiting his mother Amina's 
sepulchre, \vho also ,vas an infidel, soon after t1l(
capture of l\1ccca. Ilere, while standing at the 

". Koran, ch. ix. 



tomb of hi
 parcnt, hr is rcportpd to have burst 
into tcars, and said, "I ask cd leave of God to 
,'isit Iny Inother's tou)b, anù he granted it me; but 
,,,hen I asked Icave to pray for her, it "'as denied 
10e." 'fhis h\ of old af11iction ùf the prophct, in 
the lo
s of his wicle and hb "ife un the t-'anlC 
year, induced hinl c\'cr after to call this " 'rhe 
Year of ...\Iourning." 
The tmprotccted apostle was no,v left com- 
pletely exposed to tll:). attacks of his cncllues, and 
they failed not to Ï1nprove thcir advantagc. 'rhcy 
rcdoublcd thcir efiorts to cnlsh the pestilent heresy, 
,vith its author anù abcttor
, aud :SOlliC of his fol- 
lo,vers and friends, seeing the spnptolns of a 
ficrccr ::>torm of pcrsecution gathering, forsook the 
standard of thcir leader. In this cxtren1Íty '10- 
hammed pcrccived, that his only chance of safety 
""as in a temporary retreat fÎOlll the scene of con- 
flict. lip accordingly ,vithdrew to 'raycf, a village 
'5itnatcd sixty nlÍlcs to the East of 
Iccca, ,,"here 
he had an uncle nallled .A.bbas, ,vhosc hospitality 
afforded hilU a seasonable shelter. IIcre, ho,v- 
ever, his stay ".as short, and his prophetic labours 
unavailing. ' lIe rcturned to :\Iecca, and boldly 
taking his stand in the precincts of the Caaba, 
anlong the cro,vds of pilgrinls \\'ho resorted an- 
nually to this ancient shrine, he preached the 
gospel of Islam to the Inultitudinous assclnblics. 
N c'v proselytes again re,vardcd his I<.1bours; and, 
anlong the accession
 no,v made to his party from 
these pilgrÏ1n hordes, were six of the inhabitants 
of 'Iedina, then called Yatrcb, ,vho, on their return 



home began at once to relate to their fello,v...citizens 
the story of their conversion, and to extol, in no 
measured terms, their new religion and its apostle. 
This circumstance gave eclat to Mohammed in 
the city of J\Iedina, and paved the ,vay to a train 
of events ,vhich tended more than any thing else 
to promote his final success in Arabia. In the 
Inean time, in orùer to strengthen his interest in 
Mecca, he married Ayesha, the daughter of Abu- 
beker, and shortly after Sa-\vda, the daughter of 
Zama. By thus becori1ing the son-in-law of t,vo 
of the principal men of his party he secured their 
patronage to his person and his cause. 

LIIL or 


CII..\.I)rrEIl 'II. 

The Prcphet pretend.., tc hnv had. a night-journey thrmlgh the Sev"1a 
lTtavrn3-Ð scriptum 'if the memorable l'tlght by an Ãrable u'Titrr-- 
Account of the Journcy-Ru probable .Jlotit:ts in f igning such an 
t: travagantfiction. · 

IT "as in the twelfth year of tho pretendeù mis- 
SIon that l\Iohalumcd ,vas favoured, according to 
his O'VI1 account, ,,"ith his cclcbrated night-jouTIl
from 'Iccca to Jerusalem, and from thene 
 to the 
scyenth heaven, undcr the conduct of the angel 
Gabriel. In ttllusion to thib th(' s{\venfC'f'nth chap- 
ter of the I\:oran conune
lces thus :-" l>raisc be 
l111tO hin1 ,vho transported his servant by night 
from the sacred tcmple of l\Iecca to the farther 
telnple of J crusalelll, the circuit of ,vhich ".C 
have blesscù, that ""e l11ight sho,v some of our 
signs; for God is he ,,,,ho heareth and SCf'th." 
This idle and extravagant tale, ,yhich is not relatcd 
in the l(oran, but handcd do,vn by tradition, ,vas 
probably dcvised by the inlpostol' in ordcr to 
raise his reputation as a saint, anù to put hUllS elf 
more nearly upon a level ,vith l\Ioses, ,yith ,vholn 
God conversed, face to face, in the holy mount. 
rrhe story, however, is devoutly believed by the 
l\lussulmans, and one of their ,vriters has given 
thè follo,ving highly-wrought description of the 
memorable night in ,vhich it occurreù. "In the 



darkest, most obscure, and most silent night that 
the sun ever caused by his absence, since that 
glorious planet of light was created or had its being; 
a night in ,vhich there was no cro,ving of cocks to 
be heard throughout the '\vhole universe, no bark- 
ings of dogs, no ho,vlings, roarings, or yelling5 of 
wild beasts, nor ,vatchings of nocturnal birds; 
nay, and not only the feathered and four-footed 
creatures suspended their customary vociferations 
and motions, but .like,vise the ,vaters ceased fronl 
their Inunnurings, the ,vinds from their ,vhistlings, 
the air from its breathings, the serpents from their 
his sings, the mountains, valleys, and caverns froln 
their resounding echoes, the earth froln its produc- 
tions, the tender plants fronl their' sproutings, the 
grass of the field from its verdancy, the ,vaves of 
the sea from their agitations, and their inhabitants, 
. the fishes, fronl plying their fins. And indeed 
upon a night so ,vonderful it ,vas very requisite, 
that all the creatures of the Lord's handy-,vork 
should cease fronl their usual movements, and be- 
come dumb and motionless, and lend an attentive 
ear, that they might conceive by means of their 
ears ,vhat their tongues ,vere not capable of ex- 
pressing. Nor is any tongue able to express the 
wonders and mysteries of this night, 
nd should 
any undertake so unequal a task, there could no- 
thing be represented but the bare shaaow; since 
,vhat happened in this miraculous night ,vas infi- 
nitely the greatest and most stupendous event that 
ever befell any of the posterity of Adaln, either 

xpn"lssed in any of the sacred writings ,vhich 

 011 \ 'lED. 


can1C ùo,vn ftonl aboyc, or br 
igns :1n<1 tigurcb. 
Front the 8ublinle ..lltitudcs of hC
l\ en the Jllost 
glorious seraph of aU those ,vhich God ever 
created or produced, th
 incomparabl(' GdbrieJ, 
upon the lattcr part of the evening of that tupcn- 
 night, took a h(L
ty anti prccipitate Hight, 
and descended to this lo,ver ,vorld ,vitli an unhrard- 
of and ,vollderful lllcssage, the \\ hich causeù an 
universal rejoicing on earth, and filled the 
 "rith .-1 more than ordinary gladness; and, 
as the nature of the lllessage both required and 
inspired joy, he visited thc ,vorld under the Inost 
 alld heautiful appearancc that c, en in1agi- 
nation it:::;clf is capable of figuring. IIis ,vhitcness # 
obscured that of the driven sno,v, and hi
dUUI darkened the rars of the noontide SUll. Ilis 
nts ,vere all covered ,vith the richest flo,,",crs 
in clnbroidery of cclestial fabric, and hi
wings ,vere 1110st beautifully expanded, and all in- 
tErspersed ,vith lllcstÏ1nable precious stones. His 
stature ,vas exceeding tall, and his presence 
exquisitel y a\\ fuI. Upon his beauteous capa- 
cious forehead he bore t\VO lines ,vritten in cha- 
racters of dazzling light; the uppermost consisted 
of these ,vords, La illalt il: allah- TllERE IS NO 
GOD BUT ALLAH; anù in the lo\vennost line ,vas 
contained, J.Jlollammed Rasoul ..1llah-:\IoHA:\IJIED 
In passing from this poetical prelude, conceived 
in the true gorgeous style of oriental description, 
to the meagre and puerile story of the journey it- 

.., Morgan's Mahometanism Explained. 



self, we feel at once that the prophet's fancy suffers 
by comparison ,vith that of his disciple, who could 
certainly, from the above specimen, have given a 
vastly more interesting fiction of a celestial tour 
than the miserable tissue of absurdity ,vhich appears 
in the fabrication of the prophet. \Vithout detail- 
ing all the partiëulars of this nocturnal expedition, 
in ,vhich the marvels thickened upon him till he 
had reached the utInost height of the empyrean, 
the follo,ving outline ,viII afford the reader an idea 
of its general cbaracter. 
While the prophet was reposing in his bed, with 
his beloved Ayesha at his side, he was suddenly 
a\vakened by the angel Gabriel, ,vho stood before 
him ,vith seventy pair of expanded ,vings, ,vhiter 
than snow and clearer than crystal. The angel 
informed him that he had come to conduct him to 
heaven, and directed him to mount an animal that 
stood ready at the door, and which ,vas bet,veen 
the nature of an ass and a mule. '"The nalne of 
this beast was Alborak, signifying in the Arabic 
tongue, " The Lightnirig," froln his inconceivable 
swiftness. His colour ,vas a lnilky ,vhite. As 
he had, however, remained inactive froln the time 
of Christ to that of IV[ohamlned-there having 
been no prophet in the interval to employ hÏIn- 
he no,v proved so restless and refractory, that 
Mohamlned could not succeed in seating hÍlnself 
on his back till he had prolnised him a place in 
paradise. Pacified by this promise, he suffered 
the prophet quietly to mount, and Gabriel, taking 
the bridle in his hand, conveyed him fron1 Mecca 



to JCTI1s(,1f'ITI in the twinkling of 1ye. "Then he 
arrived at the lattcr place, the departeù prophpts 
and saints caIne forth to Jll('et and to 
alutc hilll 
and to rcquc:-;t an interest in rus pray Irs "Then he 
callIe near to the throne of lory'. Goill!! out uf 
the tClnple he found <l ladder of 1ight ready h.<.1 
for thcln, and t) in(r \lhurak to a rock, he fullo\\ cù 
Gabriel on the laddcr till they rcaeheù tIll' lirst 
heaven, ,vhcre adnliuancc "a:s TC(ldily uranteù Ly 
the porter, "hel1 told by Gabriel that his conl.. 
pallion ,vas no other than .1\Iohalnlncd, tht' pro- 
ph('t of God. 'fhið first hea'l'JI, he tens us, ,vas 
aU of pure silver, aùorneù ,,,ith stars hallfTing 
froIu it by chains of gold, each of them of the' 
size of a nlountain. IleTc he "as Inct hy a de.. 
crcpid old nlan, ,,"hOlll the prophet learned to be 
our fathcr _\ùaln, and ,,-ho greatly TC'joiccù at 
havinCT so di.5tin
heJ a son. lIe sa,," al
o in 
this hcaven innulllerable angels ill the shape of 
birds, bea
t::;, and ll1cn; but its ero," ning ,,'-onùcr 
,vas a giQ"antic cock, ,vho
e head to"\vcred up to 
the scronù heaven, though at the distance of fÌve 
Jlundl cd days jOlulley CroIll the first! IIi
"\\rere large in proportion, (lnd ".('Te decked "ith 
carbuncles anù pearls; and so loud diù he ero,,', 
,vhcneycr the nlurning ùa,vned, that all creatures 
on earth, e:\.cept Incn and fairies, heard the trc- 
Incndous din. 'fhe 
econd heaven ,vas of pure 
gold, and contained t\vice as nlany angels as the 
former. Anlong these '\9as one of such vast di- 
Inensions, that th(' distance bet'\\- ern his eyes \\ras 
equal to th(\ length of spventy thousand days 



journey. Here he met Noah, who begged the 
favour of his prayers. Thence he proceeded to 
the third, . where he was accosted by Abraham 
with the same request. Here he found the Angel 
of Death, ,vith an Í1nn1ense table before him, on 
,vhich he ,vas ,vriting the nalnes of the human 
race as they were born, and blotting them out as 
their allotted number of days was completed, 
,vhen they immediat
ly died. At his entrance into 
the fourth heaven, ,vhich ,vas of emerald, he was 
Inet by Joseph, the son of Jacob. In the fifth he 
beheld his honoured predecessor, Moses. In the 
sixth, ,vhich was of carbuncle, he found John the 
Baptist. In the seventh, lnade of divine light in- 
stead of metals or gellis, he saw Jesus Christ, 
,vhose superior dignity it ,vould seem that he ac- 
knowledged by requesting an interest in his 
prayers, ,vhereas in every preceding case the per- 
sonages mentioned solicited this favour of him. 
In this heaven the number of angels, which had 
been increasing through every step of his progress, 
vastly exceeded that of all the other departments, 
and among them ,vas one who had seventy thou- 
sand heads, in every head seventy thousand mouths, 
in every mouth seventy thousand tongues, in every 
tongue seventy thousand voices, ,vith which day 
and night he ,vas incessantly- employed praising 
The angel having conducted him thus far, in- 
formed him, that he was not permitted to attend 
him any farther in the capacity of guide, but that he 
must ascend the relnainder of the distance to the 



thronc of God alonc. TIlls 11) accordin Iy under- 
took, and finally 1:1. oJnpli
hed, thourrh ,,,ith rcat 
difficulty, his ,vay lying throuO'h ,vaters and 
no'\ s, 
and other fonnidablc obstacles, sufficicnt to daunt 
the stoutest heart. ..\t lcno'1h he reached a point 
where hp heard a ,oice addres
ing hi1l1, :::,aying, 
" 0 
Iohanl1ncù, salute thy Creator." 'Iounting 
still highcr, he caIne to a place ,,-here he beheld 
a vast extf'n
ion of light of such dazzlin b hright- 
ness, that the }10"-C1'S of lllortal ,.ision ,vcre unable 
to endure it. In the midst of the effulgence ,vas 
thp thrune of the Eternal; on the right sÎùp uf 
\vhich ,vas ,vrittell in lUlUillOUS _\.rabic characters: 
,. 'fhcre is no God but God, and )Iohamnlcd is 
his pl ophct." 'fhis inscription he :,ay:-; he found 
\\rrittcn on all the gates of the s 'veil heavens 
through ,vhich he pfi
scd. IIaying approached 
to ,vithiu Ì\VO bo,,, -shots of the Divine prc:-,cncc, 
he aflìl HIed that he thcre hehlld the 
t IIigh 
seated upon his throne, ,vith a co, ering of scyenty 
thuu:-,au(l vcils before hi:-, [(lce, frOll1 bcnpath ,vhich 
he st1'etehed forth his hanù anù laid it upon the 
prophet, ,vhen a coldness of inconceivable inten
pierced, as hù saiò, to "the very nlarrO\V of his 
back." Ko injury, ho\vcvcr, ensued, and the Al- 
nlÎghty then condescended to enter into the most 
familiar converSe ,vith his serva.nt, unfolding to 
hÜn a great luany hidòcll Inystcries, Jnaking hÍ1n 
to understand the ,vhole la\v, and instructing him 
fully in the nature of the in:--titutions he ,vas to 
deliver to fllankillù. In addition to this he honoured 
hitll ,vith 
cvcral òistinetions abo\ c the rl:
t of his 



race; as that he should be the most perfect of all 
creatures; that at the day of judgmPnt he should 
have the pre-eminence among the risen "dead; that 
he should be the redeemer of all that believe in 
him; that he should have the kno,v ledge of all 
languages; and, lastly, that the spoils. of all whom 
he should conquer in war should belong to him 
alone. After receiving these gracious assurances, 
he retired from the presence of the Divine Majesty, 
and, returning, found the angel a,vaiting him at the 
place ,vhere they parted, who immediately r
conducted him back, in the same manner in ,vhich 
he came, to J enlsalem and Mecca. 
Such were the puerile conceptions of the pro- 
phet. Such the silly. rhapsody ,vhich he palmed 
upon the credulity of his follo,vers as the description 
ofamostveritaþleoccurrence. The story, ho,vever, 
carried on the face of it such glaring absurdity, that 
several of his party forsook him at' once, and his 
\vhole cause came near to being utterly ruined by it. 
At length Abubeker, tþe man of greatest influence 
among the prophet's friends, by professing to give 
credence to the tale, at once put to shame the in- 
fidelity of the rest, and extricated his leader from 
his unhappy dilemlna. He boldly vouched for the 
l)rophet's veracity. "If Mohammed affirms it, it 
is undeniably true, and I ,vill stand by him. I 
believe every ,vord of it. The Lord's elected 
calUlot lie." 'rhis seasonable incident not only 
retrieved the prophet's credit, but increased it to 
such a degree, that 
t made him surè of being able 
ever after to in1poðe apy fiction he pleased upon th{; 



C'élSY faith of his disriples. So that thi:-; 
and paltry fahlp, "hieh at first thrpatrnrd to hlast 
all th ) iUlposLor":s 
l"hCIl1eb ill the Luù, diJ in fa.t 
f)tXVf', hy a. pcculiat" cOlubinati()n of eirClnnstanccs. 
luaterially to llrornote hi
. A.hnhl'kf)( 
henceforth haù the honorary title of "!1'aithflll 
"ritness" bc
to,ved upon hinl. 
"T c learn from Sale, the Engli
h c<ft1uncntator 
upon the I{oran, that it i
 still SOlllc,vha ùi"putcd 

Lmong th. ::\loh(unmcdan ùoctors, "hC'ther thf'ir 
prophet's night-joul1icy ,vas really p('rfonllrd hy 
hin1 corporcally, or ,vhethcr it \\'as only a dreaul 
or a vision. SOJne thiñ]
 it '\"(l
 no more than a 
,i:sion, anù allege an cxprcs
 traùitioll of!\Ioa,,'iyah, 
one of J.\lohanlnled's successors, to that purp . . 
Others bUpp08C, that he was carried hodily to 
J erusalcln, but no farther; and that he thence as- '- 
cended to hea\ren in spirit only. Hut the received 
opinion is, that it ,vag no vision, but that he "as 
actually transported in the body to his jourllcy'b 
end; and, if any impossibility be objectcd, they 
deenl it a sufficient ans,ver to sar, that it nlight 
casily have been effected by an ol1u1Ïpotcnt Bcing. 
It is by no Ineans improbable that l\Iohannucù 
had a farther design in forging this extravagant 
tale than Inerely to astonish his aùherents by the 
relation of a 111iraculous adventure. 'fhe attf'ntive 
obsPTver of the distinguishing traits of Islami
,rill not fail to discover innumerable points of re- 
semblance behveen that system and the divincly.. 
revealed religion of the J c', s; and it appears to 
have becn an object studiously aÎlncd at by the 



ilnpostor to assÍ1nilate hinlself as much as possible 
to Moses
 and to incorporate as many peculiarities 
of the Je\vish econolny into his own fabrication as 
he could ,vithout destroying the simplicity of his 
creed. This fact is in keeping with what may be 
asserted in general terms, that the descendants of 
Ishmael, under a consciousness that the cove- 
nanted blessings of Jehovah have flo,ved down in 
the line of Isaac and Jacob, have ever shown a 
disposition to imitate ,vhat they could not attain. 
More stiking proofs of this. will appear in the 
sequel. We adduce the observation here as 
affording a probable clew. to the motives of the 
prophet in feigning this memorable night-journey. 
Hitherto he had only imparted to his follo,vers the 
Koran, ,vhich, like the books of Moses, may be 
terined his written law. In making this revelation 
he had professed himself nlerely an organ through 
w hOln the divine counsels ,vere to be uttered to 
the race of men. He simply gave forth ,vhat was 
conlIDunicated to hiIn through the medium of the 
angelic lnessenger, and that ,vithout interposing 
any C0111ments or expositions of his o,vn. Ac- 
cordingly, ,vhen pressed by the cavils of his adver- 
saries, his usual refuge was to affirm that the Koran 
was 110t his book, but God's, and that he alone 
could giye a just interpretation of its meaning, 
,vhich ,vas in SOlne places to be understood literally, 
in others allegorically. "There is no God but 
God, the living, the self-subsisting: he hath sent 
do,vn unto. thee the book of the !(oran \vith truth, 
confinning that which \vas revealed before it. 



It is h(' ,vho hath spnt do" II unto the.. tlu\ 1)ook, 
". herein aro 'OllIe Y -r
' clear to be under::;tood; 
they arp the foundation of thp book; and others 
are parabolical. llut th(.y ,,'hu
c hearts (ir(' per- 
,erse "'ill follo\v that ,,'hich is parabolical th(Ar -in, 
ont of 10'''(' of schi
m, and a dl'
ire of the inter- 
pretation thereof; yet none kno,,"cth the intrr!)rc- 
tation thereof excC'pt (
où.'. llut ha, ing by SOll1C 
ll1cans beCOßiC' at:quaintflò "ith the fdct, that the 
, in aùdition to the written law dictated hy 
od hin1sclf, ,vere in posses
ion of another, called 
th.. oral law, 
(âd to have bet'n gi\ en to :\Ju
('\s a 
the sanle ti1l1C ,vith the fornlPr on the holy UIOlUlt; 
and frolll )linl handed ùo,vn by tradition from aCTe 
to f.lge; underst
, JllureO' er, that thi:i la'\\ "a:i 
accowltCÙ of cqual authority "ith the "riU 'n, 
\,'hilC' it had its origin 
olely frolD certain, erhal 
dcclar3tiou.., or dictates of :\Iosc
 \\'hich ,\ cre pre- 
serveù in the llu:'nlories of tho
p ,,'ho con, crs IÙ 
,,'ith him; the prophet 1uay from this have taken 
the hint of a 
in1ilar tHode of advancing- hi
rity, anù of giving the ,veight :.tno character of 
oracles to his private sayings. 1
0 this enù it is 
not unlikel} that he originated th
 fahulous I(lgend 
of hi:s nocturnal travel into the regions of the 
spheres. lIe ""as ,veIl a ".are, that could he once 
succeed in making it believed that he had been fa- 
voured to hold this high converse ,vith Goù in the 
spcret of his presence, and that he had been there 
fully instructed in th(1 profound mysteries of hca- 
vrn, he cOlùd upon this fOWldation erect just such 

· Koran, ch. iiI. 



a fabric of imposture as he pleaseù, anù impose it 
upon his credulous follO"\vers. Such at any rate 
,vas the actual result. From this- tÍ1ne forth 
a peculiar 
acredness attached to the most trivial 
sayings and the n10st inconsiderable actions of the 
prophet in every thing that regarded his religion: 
'They were reverently noted during his lifetime, 
and devoutly collected from traditional reports after 
his death, and at length brought together in those 
volumes of traditions, ,vhich compose the Sonnah, 
answering precisely to the oral la,v of the Jews. 
- And as the J e\vish Rabbins employ themselves in 
collating, digesting, and explaining their ancie!lt \ 
traditions, by many of ,vhich they make the law 
of God of none effect, so also among the Moham- 
medan divines, there are those ,vho devote theln- 
selves to the business of expounding the Sonnah, 
as containing the sum of their theology, both 
speculative and practical. It was not. without rea- 
son, therefore, that the impostor ,vas extremely 
anxious to have this lnarvellous recital cordially 
believed, or that he should have introduced the 
Most High in the Koran confirming the truth of 
his servant's åsseverations. "By the star when it 
setteth, your companion Mohall1meù orr.eth not, nor 
is he led astray: neither cloth he speak of his O\Vll 
will. It is no other than a revelation ,vhich hath 
been revealed unto him. The. heart of Mohanl" 
med did not falsely represent that ,vhich he saw. 
'Vill ye therefore dispute with hUll concerning that 
h he "a,v 1"* 

* Koran, ell. 1m. 

LIFE OF 'l\IOIIA '("\lED. 


elr \.1)TER VIII. 

An Embassy sent to the Prophet from J[cdina-Enter
 into a League 
with thnn-=-f'u'Uls tllitJlf:r a J1 is,çionary-.A not!u:r DC]llltlltwll. 
to proJfer him an .Asylum in Owl Clty-llis E1tun;cs reluw thuT 
PerseclitiOlu-D lirmines tf) fly to 1[tllina-bvÙlcnt.
 01" tho 
u'ay-.Uakes a Solnwl, Entry into the City-Apostat C/lristianø 
supposed to llave jUl1u:d in tendtrÙLg lLim the ltLVttaliU1r,. 

'fIlF t:"lmp of 1\JohanlIDcù had no,v cl{trndcd be- 
yond the ,vall
 of hi:; native to,\ 11. \\ hile he ,vas 
opposed, scorned, and derided at :\lccca, his r \pu- 
tation ,vas gTo,ving, and hi
spreading at 'Iedilla. 'rhis city, ancicl tl) knO\\ n 
by the nanlC of Yatrcb, and lying at thc northcnl 
extremit of the province of IIejaz, ahout sc,"cnty 
miles irOlll 'Ic 'ca, had bcen 
ti.llg-ui:;he<.l by the 
early introduction of letters, arts, anù :-3cience; and 
its inhabitant
, compo
cd of pagan .L\rab
, here- 
tical Christian,..;, and JC\\"s, ,vere frequclltly ùClÕ\ig- 
nated as the prople of th book. 'fhe t\vo princi- 
pal tribe8 ,'" hich no,v had I)o

ession of the city 
,vere the I(arcjitcs and the A \vsites, bchvcen 
Wh0111 a hereùitary feud had long subsisted, and 
the disturbance
 occasioned by the riyalry uf thC'se 
t"'''o tribcs ".cre enhanced by the ùi
putes of the 
religious factions, J e,vish and Christian, ,vhich dis- 
tracted all classcs of citizens. It has been al- 
ready observed that several of the inhabitants, ill 
a pilgrilnage to the Caaba, had been converted by 
the prea
hing of l\Iohammpd, and that on their re- 
12 · 



turn they had not been slothful in the propagation 
of their new sentiments. That they ,vero both 
sincere and successful disciples of the prophet may 
be inferred from the fact, 
hat on this year, the 
twelfth of the. nlission, called the accepted year, 
t,velve 111en can1e to Mecca, and took an oath of 
fidelity to Mohamlned at Al Akaba, a hin on the 
north of that city. The amount of this oath ,vas: 
"That they should renounce all idolatry; that 
they should not steal nOf commit fornication, nor 
kill their children, as the pagan Arabs used to do 
when they appreh-ended they should not be able to 
maintain them; nor forge calumnies; anù that they 
should obey the prophet in every thing that ,vas 
reasonable/' When they had solemnly bound 
themselves to the conditions of the oath, IVlohan1- 
l1Ied sent one of his disciples, named Ma
ab Ebn 
Omair, to instruct these men fully in the principles 
and practices of the new religion. l\1asab's Inis- 
sion ,vas eminently successful. An10ng the prose- 
lytes ,vcre Osaid Ebn Hodeira, a chief lnan of the 
city, and Saad Ebn Moadh, prince of the tribe of 
A ,v
; anù scarce a house in the city but nU'mbered 
one or -Inore converts. If the terms may be al- 
lo,ved, the excitement was little short of a Mo- 
hamlnedån revival. 
The next year, the thirteenth of the n1ission, 
LVfasab returned to Mecca :tccompanied by se- 
venty-three men and t\VO ,vomen who had pro- 
fessed Islal1lÍsln, besides several who ,vere as yet 
unbelievers. The object of this deputation ,vas 
to proffer to the apostle an asylum or any assist- 



ancc in thcir pO'Vt'r C'l
 thf'Y hcul1carncrl that, 1rolll 
trcllgth and 11lalic. -' of hi:; aùversarÌes. he 
stood in spC'cial J)f'eù of auxiliaries. It ""a
fact a political a
so("iation "hich ,'as proposf'd to 
nter 'd into, "in" hich "'C Iuay pen.pi\ e," 
Gibbon, "th(> first vital 
p(lrk of thp ('1I1pirc of tl)(

." III this '-'ecrct conference ,,'ith t11 
prophet, his kin
;}n('n, and bis disciplf's, YO'VS of 
ff'alty and of n1utual fidf'lity ""f'TP pIt'dgC'd by t1)("' 
. 'I'h -' ùeputies froln Jlcdina prolllÍ8cù, in 
the nalne of the city, tl1 at if he 
hould be banished, 
they '\\ ould "rccpivp him a
 a (.onf{'df'ratt', o1)cy 
hinl as a leader, and defcnù hinl to the la:s '}..trc- 
I Jnity, ]ike thcir "'Í\ C
 and children." "JJut if you 
arr rccalled to your countl) ." they a
()c1 ... \vi]] 
you not abandon your 11 '" allies 1" " _\ll thinc)"s," 
replied l\Iohalnn1f'd "arc no,v common bet\\ ecn 
us; rour blood is as Iny 1>100d; your ruin as IHY 
ruin. "r c arc bound to each other by the tics of 
honour and intcrest. I am your friend and the 
cncluy of your foes." 
'But if ,ve arc killed in 
you.r ser\Tice, ,vhat ,rill be our re,,'ard 1" " {> ARA.. 
DISE!" rcplieù the confident apostlC'. "rhiF; treaty 
"as then ratified, and thf'Y separated, 'Iohal1un(ld 
having first cho
cn t"'f'h"e out of their nunlber, 
,,,ho were to hayc th(' sanle (luthority among them 
as the t,velve apostles of Christ had among the 
Abu Sophyan succeeded Abu Taleb in the go- 
vernment of )lccca, in ,vhOln 
lruncd found a 
mortal enelny to his family, his religion, and him- 
self: No sooner ,\-as he called to the head of the 




state than he detern1ined to extenninate the apostle 
and his ne\v-fangled heresy. A còuncil of the 
Koreish and their allies was called, and the death 
of the impostor decided upon. It was agreed that 
a man should be chosen out of each of the con- 
federated tribes for the execution of the project, and 
that each man should have a blow at hin1 with his 
s,vord in order to divide the guilt of the deed, and 
to baffle the vengeance of the Hashen1ites; as it 
'vas supposed that ,vith their inferior strength they 
,,,ould not dare, in the face of this po\verful union, 
to attempt to avenge their kinsn1an's blood. The 
prophet declared that the angel Gabriel had re- 
vealed to him the atrocious conspiracy, to "\vhich 
he thus alludes some time -afterwards: "And call 
to mind, when the unbelievers plotted against thee 
that they might either detain thee in bonds, or put 
thee to death, or expel thee the city; and they 
plotted against thee; but God laid a plot against 
them; and God is the best layer of plots."* 'I
heavenly minister, however, who disclosed the 
plot, pointed out no way of defeating it but by a 
speedy flight. Even this chance of safety had 
like to have been cut off through the vigilance of 
his enemies. He vIas indebted for his .escape to 
the devoted zeal of Ali, "\vho wrapped hin1self in 
the green mantle of the prophet, and lying down 
upon his bed deceived. the assassins who had be- 
sieged the house of his friend. lVIohammed, in 
the mean time, in con1pany ,vith his faithful friend 

., Koran) ch. viti. 



lH.cccdcd in gpUing 
c.ifel) out of 111(' 
city, aIul in reaching a cavc three n1Ílcs distant, 
('aBed th
 ('a,.c of rrhor, ,,"hcrp thp t"...o fugitÏ\
eOllccaled thClllSC!VCQ three da) s from their pur- 

uC'rs. ..\. tradition of hi
 folIo\ycrs stat s that the 
assa=--sin::-., hën ing arri,
cd the 1nouth of th(' 
cave, \\
cre deceiycd Ly the nCfSt of a pig(lon llladt
at its ('ntranc
, and by a ,,"cb ".hiph a sI)ider had 
fortunately "0' f'n (l
ross it. ]Jf'li
ying this to he 
suf1iciellt evidence that no lnllllan ',.as " ithin, 
thpy desisted fronI all f:trthf'r pX
l1nination. rfhe 
Inanifi"st tokens of divine protection voucllsafcd 
to the })rophet on thi.., oCC' 
ion, allòrùeù hinl signal 
(,l1couragf'mcnt c,.('r after, even in the cntin" des- 
titution of }nnTIan resourcC's. 'If yc · (tssi
t 110t 
the prophet, yerily God ,vill assj
t hinI, as hc as- 

isted hinl fonnf1rly, .,vhl'n the unbelipvPfs droyp 
hinloht of \Iecca, tho second of 1\'''0 (i. (I. }laving 
only ".ith hiln); "hen they ,,'cre both 
in the caye; ,vhcn he said unto his companion, lle 
not grieved, for God is ,yith us. And God :s
dO'\9n his security upon him, and strcngt11cned him 
,vith nnnies "9hich ye sa,v not.'" Leaving the 
cave after th(\ departure of their enemies, they 
nUlde their ,vay as rapidly as the perils of their 
flight ,vould permit to,vards the city of rcfuge, 
,vhere they arri,red 
ixte{\n days after Icaying 
'Tccca. lIa\'ing halted at I\:oba, t",.o lnilcs frolll 

leòilla, he "as there mf\t by five hundred of the 
citizens ,vho had gone forth for the purpose, and 

.. Koran, ch. ÎX. 




by whom his arrival ,vas greeteù ,vith 'a cordial 
welcome. The prophet, having mounted a cainel, 
,vith an umbrella spreaù over his head, and a tur- 
ban unfurled instead of a banner,.n1ade his public 
and soIelnn entry into the city, ,vhich was hereaf;. 
tel' to be sanctified as the place of his throne. 
'-.rhis flight of the apostle of Islamism, called in 
the Arabic tongue the I-IEJIRA, or more properly the 
HEJRA, has become the grand era of all the Mo- 
. hammedan nations, being elnployed by them for 
the same purposes as the year of our Saviour's 
birth is throughout the nations of Christendom. It 
took place A. D. 622, in the fifty-third year of the 
prophet's age. 
The ,vaiting adherents of the- lnessenger of 
truth, con1posed of those of his friends who had 
by -his orders fled fron1 l\1e
ca a short time before 
him, and the" proselytes of Medina ,vhom he had 
never seen, no,v flocked obsequiously about his 
person, and the distinction henceforth became es- 
tablished among his follo,vers, of the lJ[ohajerins, 
or tlte companions of his flight, and the Ansars, or 
helpers; familiar appellations for the fugitives of 
Mecca, and the auxiliaries of Medina. "As for 
the leaders and the first of the l\Iohajerin and the 
Ansars, and those who have follo,ved them in well 
doing; God is well pleased with then1, and they 
are ,veIl pleased in him; and he hath prepared 
them gardens ,vatered by rivers; they shall }"c- 
main therein for ever; this shall be great felicity.". 

'" Koran, ch. ix. 



l\t thi
 ùi'4aucc of tiul it is not pos
ible to de.. 
('idf' ,vhat ("lass of citizC'ns had the principal share 
in tf'JHl
ring this invitation to the proph
t and 
g-ranting hiln sue 11 a ready r 
eption. Fronl th(' 
follo"ying pa
sag(', occurrinCT in the first published 
(.baptpr of the !{oran after cntering 'tedina, Hornl' 
"riters ha,'c inferred that the nominal '\hrif:)tian
of that city ,verc th(. n113st active' agents in intro- 
ducing the inlpostor. u Thou 
hal slU'cly finù the 
111f)st violent of alllnpn in enn1ity a(rainst thc true 
Ibf'lipvcrs to he the J c":s and tlH
 (i. c. 
pagan Arabs); and thou 
halt surely 1ind those 
among thenl to be' th(' most iuelinahle to entertain 
friendship for the true b(
lic,rers 'vho say, 'Ve aT(" 
Christians. 'fhis cOlncth to pass b 
cause there 
are priests an10n
 them (tnd Inonks, and because 
the) are not plated "ith pride: and -\\-hell they 
hear that "rhich hath been sent dO"TIl unto the 
apostle read unto then1, thou shalt see their eyes 
overflo,y ,,-ith tears because of the truth ,vhich 
. they perceive therein; sayin
, 0 I
ord, "yc belie, e : 
,vritc us do'vn therefore '\Tith tho
e ,vho bear" it- 
ness to the truth: and ,,-hat should hinder us frolll 
believing in God, and thé truth ,vhich hath come 
unto us, and from earncðtly desiring that our 
"ould introduce us into paradi':ic ,vith the righteous 
". 'fhis is cprtainly Ï1nportant as a histo- 
J rical document, and if the inference dra,vn from it 
. be correct, it aflords a Ineiancholy proof of the 
f deep degeneracy of the eastern churches, that they 


" Koran) ch. W. 



should be alllong the first to elubrace the foul im- 
posture. "If that ,vere the fact, it funlÌshes pal- 
pable demonstration also, that ,vhen men have 
once began to swerve and deviate from th
no limits can be set to the degree of aposta"cy into 
which they are liable to fall. A fearful illustration 
is thus" afforded of the law of the divine judg- 
ments, that 'v here men, under the cloak of a Chris- 
tian profession, receive not the love of the truth, 
but have pleasure in unrighteousness, God shall 
send them strong delusion that they should believe 
a lie, and that too to their inevitable ruin. 


 01 :\1 0 UA)l:UED. 



The Prnphct 1I.0lV raisrrl to a hil!h Pitch fJ n;
n;ty!....n'lÌlds n ]f $(/1 
-Ã CI"Ot.!fl' Ù, th Tn" (!f Iii" Rer:dafwlu-TII Fwt/ifulll,fJu' C - 
.7'Lal1d (I to fit:hf for th tnu.. Rtl'!Iion-His first U'llT-liJ.. Utempt 
UnstlGC s,!ful- The JtniluT'f cnmpnuat d 'in the S cO'nd-.ACCOII1l,t of 
th Battl '!f B'da-Thi3 \lctOry mUC/l boasted of-Di/ficultit!8 In 
1M lJi"Ùlion ql tJ- Spoil-Caab, a Jew, a3sauinat d at the l11..3tallcc 
(If th Prophet. 

I f1 n.o:u a fugitive 
Iohalnmeù b 'came a 111onarch. 
ooncr had he arrivptl eLt ,rcùina th(lll he found 
hirnself at the head of an anny devoted to his 
penson, obedient to hi:s "rill, and blinù belicvC'fs in 
his holy office. lle Lcgcln at ÙIU.C to l11ak.... ar- 
 for a pcnnaucnt S 'HI 'Jllcnt, anù his 
first ùu:sinc::;s, altcr giving his daughter it'atilna in 
Inarriage to Ali, ,vas to l'J
ct a d\\ elliJlh hUh
e fè)r 
hÏ111:-5clf, and a tClllplc or luosqne, adjacent to his 
O\VIl resiùence, for a place of rcligiou
 ,\"orship, in 
,vhich he Inight puhlicly pray and pI e<u
h before 
duo people. l
ur he 1l0'V, ill his ow 11 person, COID- 
billed the tCInporal and the religious po\ver; hl1 
,vas leadcr of. hið army, judge uf hi
 peuplc, and 
tor of his flock. 
\Vith the change of his fortunes, his doctrines 
began also to val). [Iithcrto he I aU propagated 
his religion b) the milder arts of arguments and 
entreaties, and hi
 ,vhole success before leaving 
::\Iecca is to be attributed 
t)lely to the effect of per- 
suasion, and not uf force. ... -\Vhereforc \varn thy 




. people; for thou art a ,varner only: thou art not 
eInpúwered tö act ,vith authority over them."* · 
Up to the period of his flight, he had utterly 
disclaimed the use of any species of coercion in 
propagating, or of violence in defending, the prin- 
ciples of his holy faith. In numerous passages of 
the Koran, published at l\lecca, he expressly de- 
clares that his business ,vas only to prèach and 
adlDonish; that he had no authority to compel any 
one to embrace his religion; and that whether. 
people believed or disbelieved ,vas no concern of 
his, but a matter that belonged solely to God. 
" 'Ve ltave also spoken unto thee, 0 lVlohammed, 
by revelation, saying, Follo,v the religion of Abra- 
ham, who was orthodox, and ,vas no idolater. In- 
vite men unto the ,vay of thy J..ord by ,visàom and 
mild exhortation; and dispute ,vith theln in the 
most condescending lnanncr: for thy Lord well 
kno,veth him ,vho strayetll from his path, and he 
well kno,veth those ,vho are rightly directed. 
Wherefore do thou bear opposition with patience; 
but thy patience shall not be practicable unless 
with God's assistance. And be not thou grieved 
on account of the unbelievers. "t "Let there be 
novio1ence in }'eligion."t Indeed, so far was he from 
allowing his followers to resort to violence, that he 
exhorted them to bear with Jueekness the inj uries 
offered them on account of their faith, and when 
persecuted himsel
 chose rather to quit the place 
of his birth, and retire- to a distant village than 

· Koran, ch, lxxxviii. 

t Ch. xvi. 

:tCh. ü. 

Lit', 01- nUIIA'Ittl 'D. 


J11ake any rcsistanr{'. But this í'"XclopLu) Inodera- 
fion, continued for the t'pacc of t"oelv years, 
 to have h \ }Il o,,-ing- altoO"(\thcr to his "Y
of PO\\ er, and thp a
(.('I}(lt'IH.Y ot' his eIlell1Ïcs: for 
no sooner '" as he cnabl '(1, Lv tllC a 
istance of the 
111ell of 
leùina, to ,,-ithstan;t his adv('1 s.tTicfo\ th<in 
he sudd
nly "altered hi
 'c..iet'," òP('larillg that 
OÒ had allo".cd hilll and hi::) follo".crs to defent! 
thenl:seh:cs by hunléln "capons ag:1Ïnst the infi- 
dels; and as his fOft.e
 in(-rf'a:-;ed, he pret nùcù to 
have th ' divine P 'f)llission to act upon the o1fcn
also, to attack his fo

, to TlJul uut idolatry at .ill 
hazards, and tu urge the true falth at tIt II point of 
the "" orù. "\\" ar is enjoined you é!U'ainst the in.. 
fiùels.". ''It'ight, thereforC', against the fricnùs 
of Satan, for the stratagclll of 
atan is \\ycak."1 
" 0 true believers, take your necessary pr('caution 
'against} our enemies anù {'ith('f go forth to "ar in 
separate partit,s, or go {(nth all together in a boùy."! 
Anù 'VhCll the 111011ths ,,-herein ye shall not be ell- 
lo,veù to attack thcln :"thaU be past kill the idola- 
ters "yherc, C'r ye fshall find thcln, anù take thelß 
prisoners, anù besiege theIn, and lay ,vait for thenl 
in every cOln.enient place. .,
 ,,"Then ye encoun.. 
ter the unbelievers, strike off their heads until ye 
ha"e Inade a grrat slaughter among thcm; and bind 
then1 in bonds; and either gi, e thenl a free dis- 
mission aftcr,,"ard, or exact a ransom, until the 
,val' shall ha,'e laid ùo,vn it
 arms."11 " Verily, 
God hath purchased of the true believers their 

* Koran, ch. ii. 

 Ch. ix. 

t Ch. iv. 
IJ Cb. xlvü. 




Bouls, and their substance, pronlising t he1n the en- 
joyment of paradise on condition that they fight 
for the cause of God: \vhether they slay or be 
slain, the promise for the same is assuredly due 
by the law, and the gospel, and the I\'.oran."* This 
fierce, intolerant, and sanguinary spirit ,vill be found 
to distinguish most of the chapters revealed at 
l\ledina, so that it pan frequently be detern1il1ed, 
from the tone and telnper pervading it, without 
consulting the date, ,vhether the portion ,vas re- 
vealed before or after the flight. The prophet's 
follo,yers have faithfully acted up to the spirit of 
these precepts; and the terrific announcement at.. 
tending the Mosleln arms has been, "The Koran, 
th, or tribute 1" Even to the present day, every 
other religious sect living under the government 
of Mohammedan nations is compelled to pay an 
annual tax as a mulct for their infidelity, and are 
sure to Ineet ,vith persecution, if 110t ,vith death, if 
they oppose or vilify any of the tenets of the holy 
prophet; Indeed, every thing like argument or 
controversy ,vith the unbelievers, though not abso- 
lutely forbidden, is far from being countenanced, as 
,ve may gather from the follo,ving precept to the 
prophet hÍ1l1self. "Let thenl not, therefore, dis- 
pute ,vith thee concerning this rnatter: but invite 
then1 unto thy Lord: for thou follo,ve
t the right di- 
rection. But if they enter into debate with thee, 
God ,veIl kno,veth that ,vhich ye do: God \vill judge 
behveen you on the day of resurre
tion concerning 
that ,vherein ye now disagree. "t 

* Koran, ch. ix. 

. t Cll. xxii. 

LIFJ.. OF -'{OIlAt;{)IED. 


The prophet wa
 no,\" enablcd to put in opera- 
tion a nlore ellectual 
YSlCln of lUC 
 to conl- 
pac::'i his reat ends than he had hither 0 had po,,- 
cr to adopt. I [(I had 1)(>gulT to ".jC'lclthe F" ord by 
divine conlnli
-.;ion, anJ hp \\"' . not disposeù to let 
ite; potcney rf\lnain unpro\. I. \,. et the J1rst \\ ar- 
]ikc f'nf(\rprifoie Undf'rtilkcll 11nlIer t1u-" au
the lllartial apofo\tle, an c'p 'dition dc
igllCÙ to har- 
rac;::; the ]{orC'ish, ,vas nnsu("ce
::)ful. lla.ving 
learn ed that a (.ara\rall, 11u' prop 'cty ot th > hostî1 ' 
as o.!.!. i
\'ay frouï 
rria to .:\1;> . .a, he d '5- 
patched his uncle llanlza, ,,'ith a party of thirty 
ho r
(' to capture it. . But the nC(lfcr approdch of the 
caravan dis 'overing to the assailants that it ,vas 
guarded by a body of three hundred men, they 
decmed it prudent to for}){'ar an attack, and to re- 
turn quietly to ::\Iecca. 
'fhe shalne of the prophct's failure on thih oc- 
casion ""as more than cOlnpcJlsatcd by the 8ucces
of his arn1S at the battle of lleùcr, so famous in 
the 1\Iohalnmedan annals, ,vhich took place the en- 
suing year. .L\ rich caravan proceeding to 
and guarded by \bu Sophyan ,vith bchveen thirty 
and forty men, tempted at once the revenge and the 
cupidity of l\Iohamlned. 'fhe spies of the prophet 
informed him that their rich and apparently easy 
prey ,vas within his grasp. He advanceù wi1h a 
fe'v followers in pursuit of it; but before he could 
overtake the unprotected band, Abu Sophyan had 
despatched a messenger to his brethren.of l\Iecca 
for a reinforcement. Roused by the fear of losing 
their Inerchandisc and their - provisions, unless they 
I\: 2 



hastened to his relief, a troop of nine hundreò and 
fifty men, among 'VhOIU ,vere the chief persons of 
the city, instantly obeyed the summons. Moham- 
nled ,vas posted between the caravan and the ap- 
proaching succour ,vith only three hUlll1red and thir- 
teen soldiers, lllounted, for the most part, on ca- 
nlels. Of these, seventy-seven ,vere fugitives, the 
rest auxiliaries. UnÙiSl11ayed by this disparity of 
force :ßiohammed detennined to try th
 event of 
a battle, and risk his fortune, his -reputation, and 
perhaps his life, upon the issue of the contest. 
rrhe troops ,vere persuaded to engage the superior 
forces of the enemy, abandoning for the present 
the tempting prize of Abu Sophyan's wealthy ca- 
ravan. The proplwt animated them by his prayers, 
and, in the name of the Most High, pron1Ísed them 
certain victory. But ho\vever assured he D1ight 
have been" of divine assistance, he ,vas careful to 
omit no human means of securing success. A 
slight entrenchlnent ,vas formed to cover the flank 
of his troops, and a ri'lllet, flo\ving past the spot he 
had chosen for his ellcan1pUlcnt, furnished his anny 
,vith a constant supply of ,vater. 'Vhcn the enemy 
appeared desccnding frOIll the hill, :\Iohauul1ed, al- 
luding to his o\vn party, excla
nled, "0 God, if these 
are destroyed, by 'VhOlll ,yilt thou be worshipped on 
earth 1 Courage, lllY children, close your rank
discharge your arro\vs, and the day is your o\vn!" 
Before the armies, ho,vever, could engage, three 
cOlnbatants, Ali, Al Hareth, and H amza, on the side 
of the Moslelns, and three of the Koreish, joined in 
single combat. 'fhe 
Ioslem champions were vic- 

LU'L 01 )lOIlA , D. 


 alHI thus gaye to both arnlie
 a presage 
of th.1 i.... 'ue of the cOIning cngagcm 'nt. \t th 
romnlCnCCJncnt of the battle, the prophet, too-cther 
,\-ith .Ahubeker, nlount('d a kind of throne or pulpit, 
)arnestly a::;h.illg of Goù the 3s:-:i.,tance of Gabriel 
",ith three thou
aud autrel.,; but ",hen hi;3 ann)" 
appeared tu "aver, he 
tartcd irOln hi
 plart of 
pray \r, thrc,," hinl
elf upon a hOft'lc, "lud ca
ting .. 
handful of sand into the air, exelain1Ïno-, u Con- 
ioIL fìll theil" f;lI.Cs r' ru
h('d 111),n the ('nc- 
IUY. If\111alÍt'i
l11 r 'udercù hili follu\vers iuvin 'ilJle. 
Ffhc forccs of the. l\.orpish ,\.cre unable 10 brcak 
the ranks or to resi
t the' fnrÏoub charg('s of hi
confiding soldiers. Frhey trclublcd anù fled, lea \.. 
ing sevcnty of their hra\'c
t nlcn dead on th · fichl, 
and s(\\ cnty pri
on('rs to gracc the fir
t ,-ictory ()f 
the faithful. Of the '[O"ICJllS, oilly tt)urtccn "ere 
slain, ,,-hosc JU1nl(,
 have bc('n handed ÙO\YU to pos- 
trrit), and enrolled allHìng the list of martvr
, ,vho
nìenlory the pious 
Iu"suhllan i
 taught to chcri"h 
".ith d('yout vPlleratÌon. Ffhe dead boòies of the 
h "crc f-;trippl'd, and ,vith a :-;aV3!!C harharity 
cast into a ,veIl; hvo of the 1110"; obnoxious pri- 
soners ".ere puni
hed ,yith death, and the ranSOlU 
of th(' others fixed at four thousand drams of 
vcr. This sum ,vould cOlllpensatc, in a Ineasurc, 
for the cscape of the booty; for, noh\'ithstanmng 
the defeat, Abu Sophyan managed to effect a de- 
cent retreat, and to arrive 8afcly at "Ieeca with 
the greater part of the caravan. The spoils ho\v- 
ever arising frOJD the ransom of the prisoners, and 
the partial plundc
. of the caravan, amounted to a 




considerable SUIn, the division of which had like to 
have proved fatal to the victors thelTISelves. FOI 
of the t\VO parties composing the prophet's army 
the Ansars, or auxiliaries, being the most nUlne 
roUß, laid claÏ1u to the greatest share. The Moha, 
jerins, fronl being first in the faith, assluned equal, 
at least, if not superior, merit to that of their COln- 
rades, ånd- a furious altercation ensued. Moham- 
lned, in order to put an eild to the contention, 
feigned a seasonable revelation from IIeaven, in 
,vhich orders were given him to divide the booty 
equally, after having deducted a fifth part for the 
uses of the prophet, and certain specified purposes 
of charity. "In the name of the 1110St merciful 
God: They will ask thee concerning the spoils : 
Ans"\ver, The division of the spoi1s belongeth unto 
God and the apostle; therefore, fear God and com- 
pose the matter amicably among you; and obey 
God and his apostle, if ye be true believers. " 
" Kno\v that \vhenever ye gain any spoils, a fifth part 
thereof belongeth unto God and to the apostle, and 
his kindred, and the orphans, and the poor, and the 
traveller. ,,* The part which the prophet adjudged 
to himself on this occasion, anlounted to several 
thousand drams, or dirams, of silver; how much 
of this sum he allotted to "the poor, the orphans, 
and the traveller," history gives us no intimation. 
The success of Mohammed, \vith his little band 
of devotees, at the battle of Beder, is frequently 
alluded to in the Koran in a 
tyle of self.satisfied 

 ch. viiL 

Lll.L Oio 
IOII \ 'Dt 'lJ. 


\.aunting and triul!lph, and is often appealed to by 
his foHu\\ er-.; a
 Jlothing I('
'i than a mh rtculou
testation of God hinl
 .If in favour of the prophet. 
" Ye have already had a Jnirar]c bho,,'n rou in 
Í\'"O (11l1lic:-; \vhieh atta("kfld each other: un) anny 
fought tor l
od'ls true reliO"ion, hut the othcr ""cre 
; they :-'(l \V th(\ faithful t" ire d:-' nlan) a
thcln:;ch'c:i in their 0\' n eyesight; fur God 
('ncth "ith hi
 help \\'hOJll he plcaseth." lJc
th(' n1Ïraclc of the infidel:) . ct'in cr the )Iû
h')J1 arnlY 
double to \dlat it ,va
, t\\ro ()thl'r
 ar") :said to have 
becn ,vrought on thi
 lllCJllOraLlc occa
ion. I. 
rrhe sand or 1-,rrd.vel ,vhich 
Iohalnnl('d thre" into 
the air is saiù to have bCéll carried by the po" cr 
of God ,vith such force against the faces of tl1(' 
enemy 11 t the) iniull'diately tllmed their bacl
and fled. " And ye ",Ic\\ no tho
c ,,,ho "rerc slain 
at llpùer vOln.
t.hres, but (
lc,\- theln. .iX eithel 
t thou, 0 'lohanln1(.tl (.d
t the gra' el into thcir 
, ,,-hen thou didst 
PClll to cast it; but God 
cast it."t 
. ,r c are also taught, that God sent 
do,vn to the proph(.t"s did, ti.rst a thousand and af- 
ter,varùs three thousand angel
, ha\.ing thcir heaùs 
adorned ,vith ,,-hite and ycllo\v sashes the end
\vhich hung do,,"u hL t ,'. cen their 
houlders; anù 
that thi
 truop of c{'h"':;tial auxiliarics, borne upon 
black and ,,-hite horse's, and hf\adpd by Gabriel 
upon hi:5 steed Iliazlllll, really did all the execution in 
the òefeat of the I(ur
ish, though )lohanuned"s men 
fought bra, ely, anù, until better instructed, gave the 
credit of the victory entirely to themselves. "And 

 Koran, ch. xli. 

t Ch. viii, 


God had already given you the victory at Beder, 
\vhen ye w'ere inferior in numbers; therefore, fear 
God, that ye may be thankful. 'Vhen thou saidst 
unto the faithful, Is it not enough for you, that your 
ord should assist you ,vith three thousand angels, 
sent down from Heaven. Verily, if ye persevere, 
and fear God, and your cnclnies COllie upon you sud- 
denly, your Lord will assist you \vith five thousand 
angels, distinguished by their horses and attire."* 
r-rhe vindictiyc spirit of the prophet was strikingly 
evinced not long after this evcnt by the assassination 
of Caab, the son of AI-Ashraf, a Jew. '"This Ulan, 
having a genius for poetry, and being !nveterately 
opposed to l\Iohamlued, \vent to Mecca after the 
battle of Bedel, and with a view to excite the Ko- 
reish to revenge, deplored in touching verses the 
unhappy fate of those of their brethren ,vho had 
fallen ,vhile valiantly resisting a renegade präphet, 
,vith his band of marauders.. He afterward returned 
to Medina, and had the hardihood to recite his 
poems to the people ,vithin the ,valls of that city. 
l\fohammed was so exceedingly provoked by the 
audacity of the poet, ,vho Innst, indeed, have been 
possessed of the highest phrensy of his tribe to 
promise himself Ï1npunÏty in these circumstances, 
that he exclainled, " \Vho will deliver llie from the 
son of AI-Ashraf?" A certain namesake of the 
prophet, Mohanulled, the son of Mosalama, a ready 
tool of hi
 Inaster, l'eplied, " I, 0 prophet of God, 
,vill rid you of hiIn." . Caab ,vas soon after mur- 
dered while cntertaining one of the apostle's fol- 

Ifr Koran, ch. ill. 


II !} 


J./"hamm"d nlterð the Ktbla-1ICany nf h
 FollowtT8 !('really '!/fend d 
thereby- llohammedan. InstitulimJ. of Prayer-.Appol1l.ts tlu l
cut cd 
R.amad n-Account of thi3 Ordinance. 

econd year of the IIC'jira, 'Iohalnnled 
altcred the Kebla for his di::; .iples, that is, the 
point of the compa:)s to\vards ,vhich they were to 
direct their pr(lyers. It" a
 u:-ìual alnong the VOla- 
ri 1;5 of all the rcliO"ions of the East to observe sorTIe 
particular point in the heavens to,vards ,vhich they 
tnrned their faces ,,,,hen they praycd. The J e"rs, 
ill ,vhatcver part of the ,vorld lher chanced to be, 
prayed ,vith their faces to,vards Jeru
alC))l, the 

pat of their sacred tClnple; the Arabians, to\varùs 
'Iccca, because thcre ,vas the Caaba, the centre 
of their ,vorship; the Sabians, to,vard

tar; the Persians, ,vho deified tìre and light, to. 
,yards the East, "rhere the SUIl, the fountain of 
l..ight, arose. "E, ery sect," says the !{orau, 
" have a certain trdct of hea\en to ,,'hich thcy turn 
themselves in prayer."" J.\lohamlned, ,vhen he 
first arri7ed in l\Iedina, dcenling the particular point 
itself a matter of pcrfect indiffercnce, and ,vith a 
vie,v probably to ingratiate himself ,vith the J e'V8, 
directed his disciples to pray to,vards J enlsalenl, 
,vhich he used to call the 1101y City, tlte City of 

.. Koran, ch. ii. 



the Prophets, and which he, at one time, intended 
to have made the grand seat of his ,vorship, and 
the place of pilgrimage to his follo\vers. But find- 
ing the Jews too intractable, or that his other con- 
verts still retained a superstitious regard for the 
telnple of Mecca, for so n1any ages the place of 
idolatrous resort, and thinking it ,vould tend to 
conciliate the inhabitants of that city, if he kept up . 
the sanctity of their temple, he, at the end of six or 
seven months, repealed his fonner la,v regulating 
the l{ebla, and thenceforward required all the faith- 
ful to offer their supplications ,vith their faces 
directed to,vards Mecca. Though not now in ac
tual possession of that city, yet anticipating the time 
\vhen it ,vould be in the hanùs of l\loslem masters, 
he fixed upon it as the future ." holy city" of his 
followers. " From ,vhat place soever thou COlnest 
forth, turn thy face to,vards the holy temple; and 
,vherever ye be, thitherward turn your faces, lest 
111en have matter of dispute against you."* "rhis 
change was indeed an offence to InallY of his dis- 
ciples, from its indicating a singular degree of 
.. fickleness in a professed prophet, and large num- 
bers accordingly forsook hÏ1n altogether on account 
of it. But his growing aversion to the Jews made 
him steadfast in the present alteration, to which he 
thus alludes in the Koran: "The foolish luen 
will say, What hath turned them from their Kebla 
to,vards ,vhich they formerly prayed? Say, Unto 
God belongeth the East and the 'Vest: he direct- 
eth whom he pleaseth in the right ,vay."t "We 
" Koran, ch. ii. t Ibid. 

LIrE OF '\10IIA:\I1tIED. 


have scrn thC'c turn about thy face to,vards hca, 'n 
,,'ith uncertainty; but 've ,\ ill cause thee to turn 
thy::> .If to,,,'an1s a l\.cbIa that ,,'ill plel e thee. 
Frurn thereforc thy face to" ards th() holy h Tnp1c 
of 'Iecea; anù, ,vhercvcr y 
 be, turn your 1à · · . 
to"'arù::; that place.. " \T ('rily, a1thouCTh thou 
should::>t sho,v unto tho:-,(' to 'VhOlll the Scripture 
hath been given all kinùs of signs, yet thcy ",ill 
not lòllo,," thy l(ebla, neith{'r shalt thou folIo,\" th{'ir 
J{cbla; nor ".ilJ 011{' part of them folIo"T thr T\:cbla 
of the other."t Ffhe bearing or situation of 'Iccca, 
"..ith its holy temple, froBl any particular r{'gion of 
tllC' 3IohalTIIncdan ,\"orld, i:-, pointed out ,vithin their 
Jnosqucs by a niche, ,,"hich gO\ crus the ùirection 
of thcir faces; anù "..jthout, by the situation of th 
doors ,\"hieh open into the gallcrie
 of th) Ini- 
narcts. There are al::;o table
 calculated for the 
purpose of rcadily finòing out their J{ebla, ,\ hlsn 
they havc no other Inean
 of a
ccrtaining th · rigl1t 
1\ 0 duty enjoined by the l\IohamJneùan creed i
D10re pronlÏnellt than that of prayer. rrhp prophet 
elf used to call prayer "the pillar of religion 
and the key of paradise," and to say that th
could be no good in that religion ,vhich di
,vith it. lIe therefore prescribed to his follo\vers 
five stated seasons in the spacc of t,venty..four 
hours for the performance of their devotion
. I. 
In the morning, beh\
een daybreak and sunrise. 
2. Just after noon, ,vhen the sun begins to decline 
from the meridian. 3. At the middle hour bet".een 

* Koran, ch. ii. 

1 Ibid. 




noon and sunset. 4. Bet,veen sunset and dark. 
5. An hour and a half after night has fully closed 
in. At these times, of ,vhich public notice is given 
by the muezzins, or criers, frol11 the galleries of 
the minarets attached to the mosques-for the Mo- 
hall1medans use no bells-every conscientious 
l\loslem engages in this solemn duty, either in a 
Inosque, or by spreading his handkerchief, and 
kneeling in any clean place upon the ground. Such 
extreme sacredness do they attach to this part of 
,vorship, and with such intensity of spirit do they 
hold themselves bound to attend upon it, that the 
most pressing emergency, the bursting out of a fire 
in their chamber, or the sudden irruption of an 
anned enemy into their gates or camps is not con- 
sidered a sufficient ,varrant for their abruptly break- 
ing off their prayers. Nay, the very act of cough- 
ing, spitting, sneezing, or rubbing their skin in 
consequence of a fly-bite, in the midst of their 
prayers, renders all the past null alid void, and 
obliges theln to begin their devotions anew. In 
the act of prayer they lnake use of a great variety 
of postures and gestures, such as putting their 
hands on.e on the other before theIn, bending their 
body, kneeling, touching the ground ,vith their 
foreheads, moving the head fronl side to side, and 
several others, anlong which it is Î1npossible to 
distinguish those enjoined by Mohammed himself 
froln those ,vhich were <"OlnlllÇ>l1 among the ancient 
Arab tribes before he arosp. Still it is. affirmed 
by t
avellers, that, nut\vithstanding the sc.rupulous 
preciseness of the 
lo:s1en1 devotions, 110 people 

LlI' · u} "\IOIIA,,,n D. 


arp more deeply tincturrd ".ith the pharisaical spirit 
of ot.,;t
ntation, or hn c better to pray in thc Jnarhf't- 
places, and in the .orners of Ùle 
tre('ts that thcy 
Jnay bC' bcen of nlCll.. anù obtain thrir prais a. 
Anlong the Turks cspecially it i
 bdid that ".ht'rc- 
vel tht'r find the greatest concour..; · of 
pe .t"ltor s , 
particularly if th
) he' ('hristians, thcrc thc) arp 
c, er surc to "'pr
ad halldkcr("hic1R, "hatf1,"('r 
inconv(>nicnces )Hay attend the location, anù Lpgill 
their auIoratiulls. In the
C' pctitions, a ,rcry "prolHi- 
llent objet t of ff'<}UC:st is, that God ,vould 
dnt t1U" 
blessing of di
s an
iolls, \va
s, and tWllul
 to L-1 
{'nkindled among Christians; and the rUJllOUrS of 
such joyful c\ cnts are hailcd a
 tUh.en:-; uf hi
cious élJ1S\VerS to their prayers. 
On the same year thr prophct introduced into 
his religion the holl' f&;t of ll(lllladan or 1l(1I)l0- 
zan, so calleù frol11 its being eOlltinueù through the 
,vholl l of this month, "hich is the ninth in th
der of the months of the \..rabic year. Of this 
duty l\lohamnled useù to say, it ".as "the gate of 
re]igion," and that" the odour of the mouth of him 
,vho fasted is more grateful to God than that of 
musk." An acceptable fast, according to the 
lem doctrine, includes abstinence from food, the 
restraining all the sen
cs and D1cmbcrs from their 
accuswmeù gratifications, and the withdra'\"111(
of the thoughts from every thing but God. 'fhe 
institution is thus announced in the }{oran: "0 
true believers, a fast is ordained you, as it '\
as or- 
dained unto those before you, that ye may fear 
God. A c
rtain number of days shall ye f



but he among you who shall be sick, or on a jour- 
ney, shall fast an equal number of other days.. 
And those ,vho can keep it and do not, must re- 
deem their neglect by maintaining of a .poor man. 
But if ye fast, it ,vill l!e better for you, if ye kne\v 
it. The month of Ralnadan shall ye fast, in ,vhich 
the Koran ,vas sent down fronl Heaven, a direction 
unto men."* By the law of their religion, there- 
fore, the disciples of Islam are required to fast, 
while. the sun is above the horizon, during the en- 
tire month of Ramadan, from the time the new 
moon first appears, till the. appearance of the next 
new moon. 'Throughout that period they abstain 
wholly from the pleasures of the table, the pipe; 
and the harem; they neither eat, drink, nor receive 
any thing into their mouths during the day, till the 
evening lamps, hung around the minarets, are 
lighted by the Imam, or priest of the mosque, when 
they are released (rom the obligations of abstinence. 
They then give themselves, ,vithout restraint, to the 
pleasures of the palate, and cOlnpensate in fulllnea- 
sure for the penance of the day by the indulgence 
of the night.. This is continued, according to the 
la,v of the prophet, "till they can plainly distin:. 
guish a white thread from a black thread by the 
daybreak,"t when the season of self-de
ial com- 
mpnces again for the ensuing day. As most of 
th,., 1\Jloh alnnle dans, however, are not too scrupu- 
lous to quell the annoyance of appetite by sleeping 
he hours of the day, the observance of the 

· * Koran, ch. ü. 

t Ibid. 

1..lrE of 'IOIIA-'I'J ED. 


';lst of R.lJuadan is littlc Blore than turning day int 
night, and night into day. 
\s thp .t\.rahic yrar is 
lunar, ccL("h rnonth in a p >rioù of Ùlirty-thrcc YCdr
falls into all the diflereut seasons of the solar year, 
anù consequently the Où
er\ allcr> of the fast, ,vhcn 
the month of J
alnaÙa.Il occurs in 5Ummt'r, is ren- 
òcreù, by the length and hC'at of tl1 
, C),,- 
trenlcly rigorous and trying; c
pecially as the pour 
 still cOlnpC'llcù to labour durinO' the day ; alld 
} et arc forbidùen, upon pain of dcaÙl, to assuage 
their thirst by a dl up of '\.. tcr. . 
· J 2 




The Koreish undertake a new ExpeditÙm against tlie Propllet- TIt.e 
Battle of OllOd-A[ohammtd and !tis Army entirely defeoted-Hìsfol- 
lowers murmur-Tlze Prophet's poor devices to retrieve tlze disgrace 
incurred in this action-Re.
olves it mainly into the doctrine of Pre- 
destination-1Vine and Games q.f chance forbidden-Sophyan, son 
of Caled, slain-lVar of the Ditch. 

THE resentment of Abu Sophyan and the citi-. 
zens of Mecca, for the loss and the di&grace sus- 
tained the preceding year, stimulated them to un- 
dertake a né\v expedition against the warlike apos- 
tle. The I(oreish accordingly assembled an army 
of three thousand men under the command of Abu 
Sophyan, and proceeded to besiege their enemy in 
the city of l\1edina. Mohammed, being luuch in- 
ferior in numbers to the invading army, determined 
at first to await and receive their attack ,vithin the 
walls of the city. But the ardour of his men, en- 
kindled by the recollecti"on of their former success, 
could not brook restraint; they claluorously de- 
manded to be .led out to battle; and he un,yisely 
yielded to their request. Impelled, also, himself, 
by the same spirit of rash confidence, he un,varily 
promised them certain victory. The prophetic 
po,vers of the apostle ,vere to be estinlated by the 
event. Mohammed, in every encounter, seems to 
have manifested, in a high degree, the tale.nts of a 
general. In the present instance his army, con- 

LIr . OF 'toll" '\DU:n. 


sisting of ahout 01le thousand 1l1Cn, ,,-as aù,.antag('- 
oU8ly po:-:tcd on the declivity of the mOlllltain 
Oho<1, tour 1uil('s to the north of 'Icwna. 'rhrce 
standards ,vcrc confided each one to a spparatP 
t1"ibc, ,vhile the great stanùarù ,,'as carried before 
the prophet, and a rho
cn band of fifty arch 'rs 
,verc stationed in thC' rear, "ith }>PfCll1ptOry ord('1 
to rClnaill there till cOnlnlil}uleù to the attach. 
by ì\Iohammeù him
clf. 'rh(' I(orcish advanced 
in the fonn of a eret;Cellt; Caled, the fiercest of 
the _\rabian ,varriors, led the right ,,-ing of the ca- 
valry; while IIinda the ,vife of Abu Sophyan, ac- 
cOlnp'ullcd hr 1ìftepn InatrollS of l\Iecca, in 'cs- 
sandy sounded tinlbrC'ls to aniu1ate the troops to 
th("' approaching conf1iet. The action comrrlf'necd 
by the 
Ioslclns charging do,,'u the hill, and break- 
ing through the enemy's ranh.s. Victory or para- 
di:,e '" (l"5 the rc".ard pron1Ïsed Ly 'Iohauullcd to 
his soldiers, anù ther strove ,,-ith frantic enthusi- 
asm to gain the expected recolnpcn

. The lil1e 
of the enemy ,vas quickly disordered, and an cas) 
victory seelned about to cro,,-n the spirit anù lTalour 
of the )Ioslem troops. At this m01nent, the arch- 
ers}.ll the rear, impelled by the hopc of plunder, 
deserted their station and scattered themselves over 
the field. The intrepid Caled, seizing the favour- 
able opportunity, ,vheeled his cavalry on their flank 
and rear, and exclaiming aloud, "l\lohan1med is 
slain!" charged ,,-ith such fury upon the disordered 
ranks of the l\loslems, as speedily to turn the fate 
of the day. The :flying report of the death of their 
leader so dispirited the faithful, that they gave ,vay 



in every direction, and the rout soon became gene. 
raI. Mohamllled endeavoured in vain to rally his 
broken troops; he fought ,vith desperate valour ; 
exposed his person \vhere the danger appeared 
greatest; was wounded in the face by a javelin; 
had two of his teeth shattered by a stone; ,vas 
thrown from his horse; and would in all probabi- 
lity have. been slain, but for the determined bra- 
very of a few c
osen adherents, ,vho rescued their 
leader from the throng, and bore him away to a 
place of safety. r-rhe. day was utterly lost; se- 
venty of his soldiers ,vere slain, among whom was 
his uncle Hamza; and his reputation as a prophet 
and apostle was in imminent peril. His followers 
murmured at the disastrous issue of the conflict, 
and had the hardihood to affirm that the prophet 
had deceived them; that the will of the Lord had 
not been revealed to him, since his confident pre- 
diction of success. had been followed by a signal 
defeat. The prophet, on the other hand, threw the 
blame on the sins of the people; the anger of the 
Lord had fallen upon them in consequence of an 
overweening conceit of their security, and because 
he had determined to lnake trjal of their sincerity. 
" After a misfortune hath befà1len you at Ohod, do 
ye say, 'Vhence cometh this1 Answer, This is 
from yourselves: for God is almighty, and what 
happened unto you ,vas certainly by the pennis- 
sion of God, that he might know the faithful and 
that he might know the ungodly. . And we 
cause these days of different success interchange- 
ably to succeed each other an10ng men, that God 

 OF "lOIlA:r.I)IFD. 


mi ht provc th05' ,,,110 bclicyc, and Juight destroy 
the infiJels.-lJic.1 ye imHginl
 that yc should enter 
paraùise, ,vhen a
 yet C:où knew lInt thuse ël111ung 
you ,,"ho fought strenuou
lr in hi
 cause; nor knc,v 
c "ho pcrse' ('Ted" ith patif1n("e 1-''"' í'rily, they 
3JIlong ) on "ho turned tluir ba
l:; on tlu'> day 
,vhc} ('on the t\\ 0 anuics 111Ct each other at Ohou, 

atall cau:;('ù thelTI to blip for 
omt' .:TÏlne "hich 
tllt),,,, had .oIlHuitted." III order to bwh.' the lJllU- 

 of thu:;)C' ,\"ho ,,"cre o,.er,,,hplnlcd \\ ith grief 
at the loss uf thC'ir friend
 and Tt
lativl"s, he repre- 
sflntcù to thclll, that Ùl ') thue of every wan'i df'ath 
is distinctly fixeù by the divine òecree, and that 
those ,vho fell in battle could not ha,.c a\"oidí'd 
their prcdetennillcd 1
lte even if they had "taid at 
hOßle; ,,'hereas no" the} had obtained the glo- 
rious privilege of dying martyrs for th(. faith, alld 
,,"cre con'\cquently translated to the bli
8 of para- 
dise. "Ü true believers, be not as thf'Y ".ho be- 
lic, e not, and said of their brethren ,vhen they 
had journeyed in the land, or had been at ,var, 
If they had been. ,,
.ith us, those had not dicd, nor 
had these.bcen :::>laiu: ,vhereas, what bcfcll thPlll 

\as so t>rdaincd.-No soul can die unless by the 
permission of God, according to \vhat is ,vrittcn in 

h(' book containing the determination of things.- 
Thou shalt in no ,vise reckon hose ,vho have been 
slain at Ohoù, in the cause of God, dead: nay, 
they are sustaiupd alive ".ith their Lord, rejoicing 
for ,,,hat God of hi
 fn our hath granted thelu.'1't 
"ith these 111Ïserable evasions did he excuse the 

ft Koran, rb. iii. 

t IMd. 



falsehood of his predictio
, anù salve- over the 
ignolniny of his defeat. This doctrine of fatalism 
however; took a deep root among his follo-wers, and 
to this day the Mohamlnedans are the most stre- 
nuous sticklers of any people on earth for the doc- 
trine of absolute unconditional predestination. 
" No accident," saith the !{oran, "happeneth in the, 
earth, nor in your persons., but the san1e ,:vas en- 
tered in the book of our decrees, before \ve cre- 
ated it."* 
Abu Sophyan, for reasons now inexplicable, did 
not pursue the advantages he had gained on this 
occasion. He Inerely ga,ve the prophet a chal- 
lenge to ll1eet hiln again in the field on the ensu- 
ing year, ,vhich ,vas readily accepted, although 
son1ewhat more than a year elapsed before the 
actual rene,val of hostilities. 

* ,,'v e had at the same time the following striking Instance of tbe 
frivolous appeals to the Deity among the Mohammedans. A man went 
round the caravan, crying with a loud voice, 'In the name of God, the 
just, the merciful. My cup is gone from me: it disappeared while I 
prayed at sunset (and may God grant my evening prayer). To whoever 
may find the same, may God lengthen out hi
 life, may God augment 
his pleasures, ant1 may God bring down affairs of business on his head !' 
This pompous appeal to Heaven, and prayers for good fortune to the 
finder of the missing utensil, were all powerless, howe,'er, in their 
effect. The lost cup was not found; and the consolation then assumed 
was, , God knows where it is gone; but it was written in heavenfrom f!f 
old.'''- Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. p. 281, Lond. 1827. 
"While t.his was going- on, the author of our calamity [a vesser had 
been run aground] was pacing the t1eck, the picture of tp,rror and inde. 
C"ision, calling aloud on Muhammed to assist us out of the danger. His 
fears were not much lessened by the threats thrown out by each passing 
tar. 'I saY', Jack;' said one of them, " we'll string you up for this;' 
making his observation intelligible, by pO
llting with one hand to the 
yard-arm, and with the other to the neek of his auditor, at the same 
time imitating the convulsive guggle of strangulation. When called 
to account for his obstmacy, the pilot gave us an answer in tbe true 
t::pirit of (Mohammedan) predestination ;-' if it is Gotj's pleasure tltat 
the ship should. go as/lOre, wllat bu..(Çiness is it ofmìne '/' "-Keppel's Jou,-. 
'Ileyfrom India to England, in 1824, p.33. 

LIFF' or 'roIlArtll'fED. 


A.bout this tÌIne, or in the fourth year of the 
Ilcjira (A. D. 626), )Iohamnled prohibiteù the usc 
()f ,vine and of games of chancc to his 1'0110\\ ers. 
" 'fhey "ill ask the of ,,'ine . ill lots: \}l
In both these therc is gréat sin, and also '0111 
things of n
p unto niP)}; hut their &infulnrs
greater than their u
e." 'fhe occasion of thi:;, 
})fohibition seems to have been the proph .t's ,,'it- 

ing thrir bad effects in producin rr discord and 
broils anlong his disciples. "0 true b('1ic\ cr
,vine and ganles of chance arc an abomination, of 
the ,,"ork of 
atan; therefore avoid them, that yc 
lllay pro
atan seek(.th to so,v dissen
ion and 
hatred aßlong you by Incans of ".inc and lots, and 
fl) divert you from rrmclnherinrr God, and from 
prayer; ,\ ill yc not, therefore, ab
taill frolfi theill 1'" 
'fhe sins of the past, arising fron1 this source, arc 
graeiously TC'mitted on condition of future anuJnd- 
nlent. "In tho
e ,v11o bcli
ve and do good ,\.orks, 
it is no sin that they have tasted ,vine or gaming 
before they ,vere forbidden; if they fear God and 
believe, anti do good ,\rorks, and bhall fur the future 
fear God and believe, and shall perscvere to fear 
him and to do good. Obey God, and obey the 
apostle, and take heed to yo.urselves: hut if ye 
turn bacl\., kno,v that thp duty of our apostle is 
only to preach puhlicly."t (Tndcr" ine are com- 
prehended also all kinds of strong and inebriating 
liquors; and though 
suhnans of lax and liber- 
tine principleb, and n1any such there are, \\"ill indulge 
I thcm:;elvc
 with the forbidden beverage, yet the 
., Koran, 
b. ü. f Ch. v. 



more conscientious scrupulously avoid it, and" not 
only hold it criminal to taste of "vine, but also to 
press grapes for the making of it, to buy or to sell 
it, or ll,1aintain themselves with the money 
arising froln the sale of it. 
Another act of blood. stains the fame of Mo- 
hamlned in this part of his history. Being in- 
fOrIned that Sophyan, the son of Caled, "vas col- 
lecting lnen for the purpose of 'attacking him, he 
ordered Abdallah, the son of OnaÏs, surnamed 
Dhul-Malldhrat, that is, a man ready to undertake 
any thing, to assassinate his designing foe. Ab- 
dallah obeyed the prophet's command, and n1ur- 
dered Sophyan in the valley of Orsa. lIe in11ne- 
diately returned to IVlohamlned, who, upon hear- 
ing the success of the enterprise, gave hinl as a 
token of his friendship the cane ,vith ,vhich he usu- 
ally walked. 
In the fifth year of the Hejira occurred the war 
of the ditch, or, as it is otherwise tenned, the war 
of the nations; "vhich, but for peculiar circum- 
stances, would probably have resulted in the entire 
overthro,v of the impostor. The Koreìsh, in con- 
junction \vith a number of the neighbouring tribes 
or nations, n1any of .,vhom were Jews, assembled 
an army of ten thousand lnen, and Inaking conlffiOll 
cause against the grand adversary of their ancient 
religion, advanced to the siege of Medina. On 
their approach, lVlohaInlned, by the ad vice of So- 
liman, or Salrnan, the Persian,* ordered a deep 

* This Soliman, otherwise callf'd Suleiman Pauk (i.e. the Pure), .has 
a celebrated tomb erected to his memory near the ruins of the anCIent 

LIrr OF !\IOIlA::U'IED. 


ditch, or intrenchment, to be dug around the city 
for its security, behind ".hich he r
mained fortified 
for near a 1nonth. J)uring thi:-, p('riod, no other 
acts of ho
tility occurr d than a fc,,? incff )ctuaJ 
attempts to annoy each other by shootino- arro".s 
and slinging stones. In the nll'an timp, tr.ldition 
says, the prophet ".as bu
ily eillploycù by hi
and emi

aries, in COI rupting and brincrin rr over to 
his intcrest the lpadillg Jllen among th. enpmy. 
IIaving succceded ,,'ith 
 "\ cral, he clllployed thcln 
in so,ving dissen
unong the rest; so that at 
length thp canlp uf the (.ollfpdcrates ,vas tom to 
picces ,,'ith divisions, and one party breaking ofr 
after another, nearly the ".hole army ,vas finally 
dissipated, and the littlc TPmnant that rpnlaincd 
thro,vn into confusion anù Illaùe PO\\ crles
 by the 
direct visitation of an angry God. 1.'or "rhilc they 

f'tesiphon, on the Tigris. It is nmong the promInent objects of curi. 
O:-llty to mo,"fern traveller:'J to thC' Enl'\t. U From the ruins we went to 
the tomb of Ruleiman Pauk, VI. hoqe name has bupersedf'd that of the 
builder of thi3 magnificent pil,', in giving a name to the di!)trict. The 
tomb 18 a small buIlding with a flom,'; the interior, to which they 
allowed us h:;::ess, on our pulling off our 
ho(>s, \\ as ornamented \, ith 
arabesque arch('
, Rnd the surrowuhng enclo1'iure "as us,'d as a cara.. 
vanscrai."-Kq>pel's JrYllTne1j, p. 02. 
" After traversing a space within the walls strewed ";th fra

of burnt brick and pottery, we came in about half an hour to the tomb 
of S 'lman Pauk. which is \"ithin a short distance of the ruined palace 
ofChosrocs. \\.e found here a very comfortable and becure retreat, 
'\\ithin a h
gh-walled enclo:sure ofabollt a hundred paces R(luare, in the 
centre of which roKe the tomb of the celebratt'd r.ivountc of ::\Ioharnmed. 
This Selm'in Pauk, or Selman the Pure, wa
 a Persian barber, who, 
from the fire-worship of his ance:"tors, beearne a convert to I
under the persu3:'Jive eloquence of the great prophf't of ::\Iedina himself; 
and after a life of fidelity to the callse he had embraced, wa.
 buried here 
in his native city of Mcdain (Ctesiphon). The memory of this beloved 
companion of the great head of their faith is held in great respect by all 
lohammedans oftlle country; for, besides the annual feast of the 
barbers of Bai;"dad, who, in the month of April visit his tomb as that of 
a patron saint, there are others who ('orne to it on pilgrima
e at aU sea- 
sonR of the 
ear."-Bllcki)l,gham.s Travel8 ù.. Jlf'sopotamia, 'Col. 2. 
p. 450. 



lay encamped about the city, a remarkable tem- 
pest, supernaturally excited, benumbed the limbs 
of the besiegers, ble,v dust in their faces, extin- 
guished their fires, overturned their tents, and put 
their horses in disorder. 'fhe angels, moreover, 
co-operated ,vith the elements in discomfiting the 
enemy, and by crying "ALLAH ACBAR!" (God is 
great 1) as their invisible legions surrounded the 
camp, struck them with such a panic, that they 
were glad to escape with their lives. 
The prophet was not insensible to the marks 01 
the divine favour vouc hsafed him in these illus- 
trious prodigies, nor did he fail to hold them up to 
the consolation of his follo,vers on subsequent 
occasions. "0 true believers, remember the fa- 
vour of God towards you, when armies of infidels 
came against you, and ,ve sent against them a wind, 
and hosts of angels which ye saw not."* But, to 
whatever it were owing, whether to human or hea- 
venly agency, it is certain that from this time the 
Koreish gave up all hopes of putting an end to 
growing power and spreading 
onquests of Mo- They henceforth undertook no more 
expeditions against him. 

* Koran, ch. xxxlü. 





Tu Jews the special objecu of J'Uohammed's Enmity-Sev
al Tnbes çf 
tJrnn reduced to SubjectÙm.-Cndtrtakr.'f a Pilgrimage to Jltcca- 
Tr.e Jfeccans cunclttdt' a Truc It'itk him (!f ten yearll-Hi3 Pou'u 
and Authority greatly illCTeas d-Ha.f a Pulpit constructed for Ius 
Mosque-GOts against Chazbar, a City 0/ tit AralJ Jf'U's-Btsitg $ 
and takes the City, but is poi301t (I at an Enttrtainment by a youll 
>>roman-I.t lftill able to prO&ecuJ hü "'ictori 8. 

"TIIATEVER might ha\c been thr prophct's early 
reverence for the city of J erusalen1, and his friend- 
ship to,vards the J e\\Ys, ,,'ho, together ,,'ith th(' sons 
of Ishmael, claimed in Abrahalß a common father, 
their obstinclcy converted his favour into iJupla- 
cable hatred; and to the last moment of his life 
he pursued that unfortunate people with a rigour 
of persecution nnparallelC'd in hið trpatmcnt of 
other nations. The J e,vish tribes of Kainoka, Ko- 
raidha, and the N aùhirites, lying in the vicinity of 
1.1edina, ".l're singled out as the next objects of hi
warlike attempts; and as they fell an easy prey 
to the po,ver of his arms, spoliation, banishnl(\nt, 
and death "
ere the several punishnlents to ,vhich 
he adjudged them, according to the grade of their 
crime ín rejecting a prophet or opposing a con- 
Our intended limits ,vill not permit us to enu- 
merate the various battles fought by l\Iohammed 
-dUl ing the five succeeding years. Suffice it to 



ßay, that, 
ccording to the con1putation of SOlne of 
his biographers, no less than t\venty-seven expedi- 
tions ,vere undertaken, in which he commanded 
personally, and in which nine pitched battles were 
fought. 'fhe heart sickens in follo,vil1g a pro- 
fessed messenger and apostle of God from one 
scene of blood and carnage to another, lnaking the 
pretences of religion a cloak to cover the most un- 
bounded ambition and the vilest sensuality. A 
mind untrained to a deep sense of the purity and 
peaceableness of the religion of Jesus may be daz- 
zled by the glare of a tide of victories, and lose its 
detestation of the impostor in adlniring the success 
of the conqueror. But to one ,vho feels the force 
of Christian principles, no relief is afforded by the 
view of arduous battles won, of sieges undertaken, 
or of cities sacked or subj ected, by the pro,vess of 
a leader ,vhose career is stained like that of the 
founder of Islam. 
One or t,vo subsequent expeditions, however, are 
too important in the prophet's history to be passed 
over ,vithout notice. In the sixth year of the 
Hejira, with fourteen hundred men, he undertook 
,vhat he declared to be a peaceful pilgrÏ1l1age to 
the holy temple of Mecca. The inhabitants "
jealous of his intentions; and ,vhile he halted 
several daYi3 at Hodeibiya, fronl whence he des- 
patched an emissary to announce his intention, 
they canle to a detennination to refuse hiln admit- 
tance, and sent hinl "yord, that if he entered the 
rity, it Jnllst be by forcing his ,yay at 1.hp point of 
the s'vord. Upon this intelligenpe, the ,varlike 



pilgTim caned his men together, and it "as resolved 
to attack the city. The \Ieccalls, ill the UH\(ln 
, having Jnore accurately measureù' th 1ir 
strength, or estimatcd their policy, and having been, 
hesides, somewhat wrought upon by an unex- 
pected act of clelllcncy on the part of 
in pardoning and disn1Ì
sjng eighty pri:soncrs of thcir 
fclIo" ..citizen
, whu had fallen into his hands, 
altered thcir purpose of resistance, and 8pnt dn 
ambassador to his camp to confer upon trrms of 
peace. SOlne umbrage ,vas given to the )Ioslenl 
by the facility \vith '\\.hich their Irader "(tived the 
title of Apostle of God," but the result ,,-as the 
cOßcluòing of a truce of tell years, in ,,-hich it \vas 
stipulated, that the prophpt anù hi
 follo,,"cTð ohoul<1 
have frce access to the city and tenlple ,,"hellc\"cr 
they pleased, during the period of the truce, pro- 
\'ided they calnp \illarmed as befitteù pilgrims, and 
rClilained not above three days at a tinlc. In th(\ 
4f;th chapter of the Koran, entitled" The Victory," 
the prophet thu
 alludes to the events of this ex. 
'If the unbelieving 'Ieccans had fought 
against you, verily they had turned their back,,; 
and they \\"ould not have found a patron or pro- 
tector; according to the ordinance of God, ,vhich 
hath been put in execution heretofore agamst the 
* "In wording the treaty, when the prophet ordered AU to be
in with 
the form, In the 1uzme of the most merciful God. they (the Mcccans) 
objected to it, and insisted that he should begin with this, In thy name, 
o God ; which 
Iohammed submitted to, and proceeded to dictate: These 
are tile conditions on u'hiclt ..llohammed, the apostle of God, has made 
peare \A:itk t1wse of"][pcca. To this Sohail again objected, sa} ing, If we 
had acknou'ledged thee to be the apostle of God, tee had not given thee 
aTlY oP1Josition_ 'Vhereupon Mohammed ordered Ali to write as Sohail 
desired., 'These are the conditions u'hich Mohammed, the son. of .Abdal.. 
lah,'" &-c.-Sale'. Koran, vol. 2 p. 384, note. 
1'1 2 



opposers of the prophets. It ,vas he who re- 
strained their hands froln you, and your hands 
from them, in the valley of Mecca." The entrance 
into Mecca on this occasion is vaunted of by the 
apostle as the fulfilment of a prophetic drealn. 
" N o,v hath God in truth verified unto his apostle 
the vision, wherein he said, Ye shall surely enter 
the holy ten1ple of Mecca, if God please, in full 
This event tended greatly to confinn the po,ver 
ofMohamlned; and not long after, he ,vas solernnly 
inaugurated and invested ,vith the authority of a 
king by his principallnen. With the royal dignity 
he associated that of supren1e pontiff of his reli- 
gion, and thus became at once the king and priest 
of his Moslem followers, whose nUlnbers had by 
this time swelled to a large amount. So intense 
had their devotion to their leader no,v become, that 
even a hair that had dropped from his head, and 
the water in which he \vashed himself, ,vere care- 
fully collected and preserved, as partaking of 
superhuman virtue. A deputy, sent from anothey 
city of Arabia to Medina to treat ,vith the prophet, 
beheld with astonishment the blind and unbounded 
veneration of his votaries. "I have seen," said 
he, "the Chosroes of Persia, and the Cæsar of 
ROlne, but never did I behold a king an10ng his 
subjects like Mohan1med among his companions." 
With tlús new addition to his nOlninal authority, 
he began to assume more of the pon1p and parade 
due to his rank. After the erection of the mosque 
at Medina, in which the prophet himself officiated 

LIFE or lonAM


3S l
r of wor
l1ip h(\ had for a long time no othCt 
c.onvcnicll 'e in the ,\-åy of stc.Ulll, dc::;k, or pulpit, 
than the trunk of a pahn-tree Jixed perpenùicularly 
in the ground, on the top of ,,-hich h(' "as 4IlCl'U
tuuled to lean ,\"hilc 1>n.'" ching. 1'hi
 ,,'as 1l0\\r 
bccollle loo 1l1Can an a "caonuuodation, and by Ùl 
advice of one of hi
 ,,-iv(;:3 he caus(.d 
t pulpit to 
be cun
tru("t{'d "ith a t-;pat (lIHI 1\\ 0 :it('p.., attat:heù 
to it, ,,'hich he henceforth nlade use of iU8lí'aù f 
the" bC'aIu." 'fhe hcatu, ho\\.evar, ".as loath to 
be dl)pri,..d of it:s honour, and tlu- dealers in th ' 
Inar' 'llous 'anloug his fulJu\\rers say, that it gay 
an audible groan of regret ,,-]u'n the prophet h.ft 
it. OtJulIan Ebn .&\fi
ln, ,,-hen h hccanlf' CaJiph, 
hlUlg this pulpit" ith tapp
lry, and 
lo' ,,'iyah, an- 
other Caliph, raised it to a grcater height hy add- 
ing six step:; HIUTt'), in ÜuitatiolJ, (loubtlcs
, of the 
ivory throne of Sulonion, and in this fornl it is 
said to be preserveù and 
ho\'.n at the present daY', 
 a holy relie, in t11l. rllo
quc of :\Icdina. 
This year he led his ann) against Chaibar, a 
city inhabited by _\rab Je\\ s, ,\"110 offering him a 
manly resistanc{\, he laid 
 to till. place and 
carried it by storm. A great nÜracle is here saiù 
to have been perfonned by Ali, sunlalned "The Lion 
of God." A ponderous gate, ,vhich eight lTIen after- 
\\ ard tried in yaill to lift froln the ground, "ras 
torn by him from its hinges, and used as a buck- 
ler during the assault!- l\Iohamnlcd, on entering 

* cc Abu Rafe, the servant ofI\lohammed, is øaid to have affimaoo tbat 
he was an e
e-witnes.-4 of the fact; but who will be witness for Abu 
Ra1e 1"-Gibbo1l,. 



the town, took up his quarters at the house of 
Hareth, one of the principal inhabitants, and here 
met with a reception which eventually cost him 
his life. Zeinab, the daughter of Hareth, while 
preparing a Ineal for the conqueror and his attend- 
ants, inserted a quantity of poison into a shoulder 
of mutton which ,vas served up at the table. Ba- 
shar, a companion of Mohammed, had scarcely 
began to eat of it, before he was seized with con- 
vulsions, and died upon the spot. Mohammed, by 
spitting out the greatest part of what he had taken 
into his mouth, escaped Í1nmediate death, but the 
effects of the fatal drug had entered his system, and, 
resisting every effort of medicine to expel or counter- 
act it, in some\vhat more than three years afterward 
it brought him to his end. I
 as the reporters of 
J.\tlohammed's miracles affirm, the shoulder of mut- 
tOll informed the prophet of its being poisoned, it 
is certain the intelligence came too late. The 
seeds of death "\vere henceforth effectually so,vn 
in his constitution; and his own decline ever after 
kept pa.ce with his growing po\ver. When Zeinab 
was asked, ho\v she had dared to. perpetrate a 
deed of such unparalleled enormity, she is said to 
have answered, " t.hat she ,vas deterulined to make 
trial of his po\vers as a prophet: if he were a true 
prophet," said she, "he would know that the meat 
was poisoned"; if not, it would be a favour to t.he 
world to rid it of such a tyrant." It is not agreed 
among the Mohammedan writers what was the 
punisbme;nt jnfljcted upon this second J ael, or 
whether she suffered any. Some affirm that she 
. was pardoned_; others th
t she was put to death. .. 

LIr}' UF' 'rOHA'\ , EV. 

14 ( 

The progress of th' pn)phcCs disea
c ,\ as not 
such 8'S to prc\'ent hilll from pro
ecuting that suc- 
...ful course of l.;onqn('
ts in "hich h.) "pas no" 
engaged. 'f'he J C\\'S, the con:stant objects of his 
vengcc.lncc, again tcnlPted hi
 \ iC'torious ,\\'ord. 
lIe proceeded against Bcdcr, "r atiba, élnd :Sclalima ; 
places \vhich he brought under subjection, pcrmi _ 
ting their inhabitants to retain pO
ion un COll- 
dition of paying hÜn one half the product of their 
date-trees as an Lillnual tribute. On these tcnna 
they r
rrlaincd undi
turbeù in thC'ir to'VJ1S and ,'il- 
lages during the lif({\ of the prol)het; till at 
length, in the rf\ign of UUlar, ,vho pretpnded that 
l\lohammcd in his last 
ickn "b:, had gi, cn lúm a 
charge not to permit tn 0 rpligiolls to coc> in 
Arabia, they" ere all expelled froJu their ancit-nt 




Mohammed.- alleges a Breach of Faith on the parrof the :!tfecca'ltS, and 
marche$ an Army against them- The City surrendered to the Con. 
queror-Abu Sophyan and Al Abbas, the Prophet'$ Uncle, declare 
themselves Converts- }'lecca declared to be Holy Ground-The neigh- 
bouring Tribe$ collect an Army of four thousand men to arre$t thl 
growing power Qf the Prophet-The.Confederates entirely overthruwn 
-Ä rival Prophet arises in tIle person of Jt.losøilama-Is crushed 
by Caled. 

l.'wo years had scarcely elapsed when Moham- 
med accused the Meccans of víolating the truce, 
and made their alleged breach of faith a pretence 
for summoning an army of ten thousand men wíth 
a design to make himself master of the cíty. He 
was n
w strong; and his enemies were weak. His 
superstitious reverence for the city of his birth, 
and the temple it contained, served to influence his 
determination for war. The time since the con- 
cluding of the truce had been skilfully employed 
In seducing the adherents of the I{oreish, and con- 
verting to his religion, or enticing under his stand- 
ard, the chief citizens of Mecca. By forced 
marches he urged his large army rapidly towards 
the city, and so unexpectedly was the place invested 
by the Moslèm troops, that they had scarcely time 
to put themselves in a posture of defence before 
they were driven to such extremities, that the sur- 
render of the city at discretion, or total destruction, 
seemed to be the only alternative. In these ci:- 



cunlstances the fornler strp ,"ra
 reso}, cd upon, 
hUlniliating as it ,vas, and Abu Sophyan, the fonner 
invetPI ate (1ßC'my of )lohammeJ 
n1(1 hig religion, 
accoInpanicd by Al Abbas, an uncle of the ÏInpos- 
tor, caIne forth and prcsenteù the keys of the city 
to the conqueror. l\or \\ as this <<ill: tht,y hoth 
cro\vned their subnÜssioll by bo\\ ill T to the pro- 
phetic clainls of their llC'V Iuaster, and ackno".l('dg- 
ing him as the apostle of God. 
rhis ""e Inay 
P "{\ as a constrained adJnis
iun luadc under 
the uplifted SCllllitar of the furious Omar, and 
yieldeù as the price of life. ::\lohaInmed, though 
tl conqueror and an impostor, ,va
 not habitually 
cruel; his anger ,vas directed rather against the 
 of his country, than its inhabitants. 'fhe 
chiefs of the Koreish prostrated thcmseh l1
hÍ1n, and earnestly dCluanued merc} at his hands. 
'" ,\ flat 1l1ercy can you expect from lhe Juan you 
have wronged 1" exclaimed the prophet. "\V e 
confide in the generosity of our kinsn1an." " You 
shall not confide in 1"ain," was the generous or 
politic reply of l\Iohammed. "Be gone; you are 
Rafe; you are free." rrhey ,vere thenceforth left 
unmolested, and places of honour and trust ,vcre 
still confided to them. Oñ his entry into the city, 
of which he had now made himself ab
olute mas- 
ter ,vith tlte sacrifice of only three Jncn and two 
women, wholn he ordered to be exécuted, he pro- 
ceeded to purge the Caaba of its three hundred 
and sixty idols, and to consecrate that temple anew 
to the purposes of his religion. The apoatle 
again fulfilled the duties of a pilgrim, and a per- 



petuallaw was enacted, that no unbeliever should 
dare to set his foot on the. territory of the holy 
city. On the day on which the prophet entered 
Mecca in triumph, he ordered BelaI, his crier, to 
mount to the top of the tenlple at noon, and from 
thence to call the people to prayer for the first 
time under the ne,v institution. This custom has 
been religiously observed in Mohalnmedan COUll- 
tries from that day to the present; the crier, who 
is called rn'llezzin, still giving the people notice of 
the hour of prayer from the minarets 'of their 
When the news of the conquest of Mecca 
reached the neighbouring tribes of Arabs, the Ha- 
wazins, Takifians, and others, hastily assembled a 
force amounting to about four thousand men, with 
the design of crushing the usurper before his dan- 
gerous pO\\Tcr had attained to any greater height. 
Mohammed, appointing a temporary governor of 
the city, marched out with an army of no less 
than twelve thousand men, and met the enemy in 
the valley of Honein, three miles from Mecca, on 
the way to TayeL '"The Moslems, seeing them- 
selves so vastly superior. in point of nUlllbers, were 
inspired with a presumptuous confidence of victory, 
\vhich had like to have resulted in their ruin. In 
the first encounter, the confederates rushed upon 
the faithful with such desperate valour, that they 
put nearly the whole army to flight, many of them 
retreating back to the ,valls of Mecca itself. Mo- 
hammed, mounted on ä white mule, ,vith a fe,v of 
his faithful follo\vers at his side, boldly maintained 



 ground; anù su,.h ,va
 ardonr in this crisis 
of the conllict, that" it ,,-as by Inain fon"p that one 
of his uncles anù a cousin, layin rr holt! of his 
bridle and 
tirrup, restrained hinl from nl
alone into the nlid
t of the cHcnl)". h 0 lny bre- 
thren," he ',-claimed, "I am the son of ..\hdallah ! 
I anl the apo;5tlc of truth! 0 1110n 
téllHI fa
t in 
 faith! 0 God, send dO\Vll thy sn 'conr !" Ili
\hbas, ,vho P()SS(I
s('(1 a fo,fplltorian voiC"p, 
ex 'ffing the utluost streu(rth of his lung:-ï, 
thp tlyincr troop
, and trradually rallied thenl 
again .lrouruJ the' holy standard; on ,vhic.h tht' pi fI- 
phet, au... 'rving- "ith pleasure "that the furlla. 
,vas rekindled," char<T('d "ith n('\v \ jO'our the rank:-; 
of the infidels aud idolatcr
, and finally 
in ohtainiug- a cornplcte victory, thuu<Th not.. a
pears frolll the !(oftln, ,,"ithol1t thp 
pecial 3

ancc of an!!cl
. 'rite gi\'ing ,va)" in the first ill 
stance '\"as a lnark of the Divine displcaHure atTains 
the ì\Io
lems for their ovcr\vflcning C"onfidpnce in 
their superior I1tunhcrs. u XO\V hath God a:s
isl .d 
rou in many engagCJl1cntS; and particularly at the 
battle of lIonein; ,vhf'n ye pleased YUllrseh es in 
your multitude..;:, but it ""as no ll1alluer of ad\'an.. 
tage unto you; the earth see1TIf'd to be too narro,v 
in your prccipitatt. flight: then did ye retrpat and 
turn your backs. .After\\
anl God sent dO\\ln his 
security upon his apo
tle and upon the faithful; and 
troop& of angcls ,vhich yc sa,v not." 
"fIle relnaining part of the year \\ as spent in 
demolishing the tClnplcs and idol:-3 of the subjec1 
.. K(iran, ch. i7. 



Arabs. Saad, Caled, and others of his Moslem 
chieftains were-despatched in various directions over 
the conquered provinces with orders to wage a war 
of extermination against the idols of the a1lcient su- 
perstition.. This piong crusade was cro,vned \vith 
the conversion of many idolaters, as well as with 
the des-trHction of the " lyÏ1'Ig vanities" of their 
worship, and it is not strange that they should 
have admitted the doctrine of the divine unity, 
when the destroying sword of the apostle had cut 
off all gods but one. 
The prophet having' now becom'e in fact the so- 
vereign of Arabia, he began, in the nÏnth year of 
the Hejira, to meditate' the conql1est of Syria. 
He did not live fully to accomplish this design, 
'v hich was executed by his successors; but he en- 
tered upon it, and notwithstanding the expedition 
,vas undertaken in the heat of the summer, and 
the scarcity of water subjected his men to' almost 
intolerable sufferings, yet he succeeded in obiain- 
ing poss-ess-ion of T'abuc, a town on the confines of 
the Greek empire, from ,vhence he made a vi'cto- 
lious descent upon the adjacent territories ofD-an- 
ma and Eyla. Their princes yielded to the des- 
tiny which now seemed to' accompany the arms of 
ihe impostor wherever they were turned, and they 
were henceforth enrolled among his tributaries. 
This ,vas the last expedition on ,vhich the pro- 
phet went forth in person. '-rhe fame of his power 
had now become so extensive and imposing, that 
distant tribes were awed into submission, and sent 
their emissaries to tender to him th-e vohmtary 

LIFE o].


aeknov. lrdgulent of their hOluage and fealty. The 
1l1Ullcrou::; ùpputdtions ,\ hich for this and otlH.\r 
l'S, "aited upon 'lohalf1lIlel1 thi
 } ear ill- 
du . .J hin1 to call it " fit . Y car of Eillba
'fhe close of this year ".ad distill
T1.1Ï:-)Il('d hr th · 
prophet'b last pilgrin1agc to 'Ieef'a, ("aIled, frulll 
it::; being the laöt, h 'fhe })ilcrrilua T 
 of ,... aledic- 
tion.'" An idea of the amazing incrrc.l
c of his fol- 
 sinc(' he la
iteù 'I
("ca Illay be lullued 
fronl the f
,lf.t, that on this occat;ion he is said to 
have b
'l'i) dct"o111panied by une hunòred and jour- 
teen thou'\anù 'Io
Signal succes
 in any enterprise seldom fails 
tu (:all forth in1Ïtators and rivals. :\ ohaullll .d 
had no\\ beCOlnc too po,\'crful to be rc
istcd by 
force, but not too exalted to Lla trouhlt'd b) ('Ulll- 
J)(.tition. IIi
 0\\ n cMllllplc ill a

un1Ïll(T tlu.. sa- 
cred character of an apo
tle and prophet, and the 

 ,vhich had attended hiuI, ga' e a 
hint to others of the prubable lllcans of advancing 
chpcs to a similar pitch of dignity and do- 
minion. The spirit of cmula1 ion, therefore, raised 
up a fonniùaLle fello"'-prophet in the person of 
l\loseilama, called to thi
 ùay by tht' follo,\ ens of 
.dam "the lying 
cilama," a ùc
cendallt of the 
tribe of Iioncifa, and a principal pcr50nage in the 
province of Yemen. 'I'his man headed an eID- 
Lti:-;sy sent by his tribe to l\Iohammed, in the ninth 
year of the IIejira, and then professed himself a 
l\I05Iem; but on his retunl homp, pondering on the 
nature of the ne,v religion and the character and 
CortWlcs of its founder, the sacrilegious suggestion 



occun'ed to hiIU, that by skilful Iuanagement he 
might share ,vith his countryman in the glory of 
a divine Inission; and accordingly, in the ensuing 
year, began to put his project in execution. lIe 
gave out that he also was a prophet sent of God, 
having a joint commission ,vith Mohammed to re- 
call mankind froln idolatry to the \vorship of the 
true God. He lnoreover aped his model so closely 
as to publish ,vritten revelations like the Koran, 
pretended to have been derived froln the same 
source. Having succeeded in gaining a consider
able party from the tribe of Honeifa, he at length 
began to put hÏ1nself stilllnore nearly upon a level 
,vith the prophet of l\ledina, and even ,vent so far 
as to propose to l\iohamn1ed a partnership in his 
spiritual suprelnacy. His letter comluenced thus; 
" From l\loseilalna, the apostle of God, to Mo... 
hanlme<}, die apostle of God. N o,v let the earth 
be half Inine and half thine," But the latter, 
feeling himself too finnly ustablished to stand ill 
need of an associate, deigned to return hin1 only the 
follo,ving reply; " Fronl Mohammed, the apostlo 
of God, to Moseilalna, the liar
 The earth is 
God's: he giveth the same for inheritance untQ 
such of his servants as he plea
eth; and the happy 
issue shall attend those who fear him." During 
the n
,v months that Mohamlned lived after this 
revolt, MOl3eijama continued, on the whole, to gain 
ground, and becaIne, at length, so forn1idable, 
as to occasion extreme anxiety to the prophet, 
now rapidly sinking under the effects of his dis- 
se, AIl expedition unùer the command of 



Calcd, " the S\vord of Goù," ,vas ordered out to 
suppress the rival .s 
("t, he(ld
ù by the spurious 
apo:stle, and the bc,vihl'r.J unagiuation üf !\10- 
hannneù, in 11is IllUlllt'nts of dcliriuln, "a:s fre- 
quently picturing to iGelf the rc:-;ult:: of the cnCTage- 
111ent bchvecn hi
lculb and thCbC da- 
Ting apostates. 
rfhe army of Caled returned vi(.toriou
. )10- 
seihuna hiul"clf :u1l1 ten thousand of hi
\\ ere left dead on the field; "hile' th(' rest, con- 
,'inced. by thc bhining r,'iùenc 
 of truth that glt'alncd 
froln the s,vonb of the l"onqu
rors, rcnoune .d th \ir 
, .lnd fell quictl)' back Îllto the hU
(}ln of the 
.:\lohanuuedall chur(.h. 
ev 'ral other iJl
of sÏ1nilar pretcnce..; but of Inin()r cons qUCIlCC, 
",'ere ('rn
hcd in like InalUlcr in the )ar]y :,t(lgC:; of 
their dcfection. 



F:a OP MOI!AMl\ißD, 


The.Religion of the Prophet.firm7y established-Tile principal 001lntTies 
8'U ldected by him-The dfects Q/ the Poison 'I/lake alarming Inroads 
'upon his Constitution-Perceives his End approachinlf-Preachps 
for the lastTime in Public-His last IZln ess and Deatll- The ..lIosZems 
8carcely 1Jersuaded that their Prophet u'as dead-Tumult appeased 
by Abubeker-Tlw Prophet buried at .J..lIedina-The Story of the hang- 
ing Coffinfalse. 

,V E have no,v reached the period at 
Thich the 
religion of Mohammed Inay be consiùered to have 
become perInanently established. 'rhe conquest 
of l\iecca and of the Koreish had been, in fact, 
the signal for the sublnission of the rest of Arabia; 
and though several of the petty tribes offered, for a 
tilne, the sho,v of resistance to the prophet's anns, 
they ""ere all eventually subdueù. Behveen the 
taking of IVlecca and the period of his death, 
some,vhat more than three years e] apsed. In that 
short period he had destroyed the idols of Arabia; 
had extended his conquests to the borders of the 
Greek and Persian en1pires; had rendered his 
nalne formidable to those once n1Ïghty kingdoms; 
had tried his anns against the disciplined troops of 
the fonner, and defeated them in a desperate en- 
counter at Muta. IIis throne ,vas now firmly es- 
tablished; and an impulse given to the Arabian na- 
tions, ,vhich induced theln to invade, and enabled 
thelTI to conquer, a large portion of the globe. In- 
dia, Persia, the Greek empire, the whole of Asia 

 OF OIlA' I 


 illor, Egypt, IJarbary, and Spain, ,vcre eventually 
r'dllccd by their ,ri. orious ann
('lf did not indeed live to see such lui(Thty 
 aehi 'vctl, hut h' cOlllmcnccd the train 
"hich rc
ultcd in this ,,-ide- 'prcaù ùonllllion, and 
betore his dcath had (':-,tablishrd oycr t11r ,vhole 
of .l\rabia, and 
onle part:-3 of \sia, tl1 1 reI igion 
,vhich he had lleviscd. 
J.\.ud no,\, having arrived at tlH
ixty-third yrar 
of his ag-e, and Lh 
 tcnth of the I[t'jira, A. D. ö32, 
the fatal rflc(.t
 of the pOi
(ln, ,vhich had beEn RQ 
long rankling in his "Cill
, began tu WSCO\ cr theln- 
selvcs more and more :-:cnsibly, and to operat · ,,'ith 
alannillg virulcn 'c. Day hy da} h(" visihly lle- 
clined, and it ,vas evident that hi
 ,\ras h"lsl 'n- 
ing to a elo
e. for 
onl(' timr prC'viou to tho 
cvent, he ,vas conseiou') of its approach, anù is 
said to ha\ e vic"rcd and a,vaitrd it ,,
ith charac- 
teristic tirnule:s
. Þfhe third day bef()n' his dis
lutioll, he ordpred hinls Ilf to be carried. to the 
que, that he might, for thr last tinlc, address 
his follo,\.ers, anù be:sto\\" upon theln his parting 
prayers and benedictions. llcing a5sistcd to lnount 
the pulpit, he edificd bi
 brethren by the piou
tcnor of his dying .ounsels, and in his o,vn ex- 
ample taught a le
'jon of humility and pC'uitcncc, 
such as ,ve s.hall scarcely find inculcated in the 
precepts of the I{oran. "If thcre be any n1an," 
said the apostle, " ,\-110111 I have unju:stly 
I sublnit Iny 0\\ï1 back to the lash of retaliation. 
Ilave I aspersed the reputation of any l\lus
ulman 1 
let hin1 proclaÏ1n Iny faults in the face of the con.. 



gregation. Has anyone been despoiled of his 
goods 1 the little that I possess shall compensate 
the principal and the interest of the debt."- 
" Yes," replied a voice from the cro"\vd," thou 
owest me three drachms of silver." Mohammed 
heard the complaint, satisfied the demand, and 
thanked his creditor, that he had accused him in 
this world rather than at the day of judgment. He 
then set his slaves at liberty, seventeen men and 
eleven \vomen; directed the order of his funeral; 
strove to allay the lamentations of his weeping 
friends, and waited the approach of death. He 
did not expressly nominate a successor, a step 
,vhich would have prevented the altercations that 
after,val'd came so near to crushing in its infancy 
the religion and the empire of the Saracens; but 
his appointment of Abubeker to supply his place 
in the function of public prayer and the other ser- 
vices of the mosque, seemed to intimate indirectly 
the choice oC the prophet. This ancient and faith- 
ful friend, accordingly, after much contention, be- 
came the first Caliph of the Saracens,* though his 
reign was closed by his death at the end of t,vo 
years. The death of Mohammed was hastened 
by the force of a burning fever, which deprived him 
at times of the use of reason. In one of these pa. 
roxysms of deliriunl, he delnanded pen and paper, 
that he n1ight compose or dictate a divine book. 
Groar, ,vho 'Vd,S \vatching at his side, refused his 

* Saracen is the name bestowed by the ancient foreign writers upo.n 
the Arabs. They may þave tolerated the title, but it is not one of their 
O\\n imposition or of their liking. 



equcst, lest the expiring prophct ullght dictate 
H0l1H 1 thing \\ hich 
honld ::>u
p('r<;cdp the T\:oran. 
, ho,\-e,'cr, cxprc:sscù a grca de
Í1'e that the 
book Inight be \\rrittcn; and so ,varnI a dispute 
arosc in the chan1ber of the' (\po:,tl
, that hr> ,,? .is 
forceù to reprove thcir \lube .outing ychclncncc. 
'fhe \\ riting '\"
 not pcrforIneù, and n1anr of his 
fullo,vers have lllournrd the los:'ì of tJH' t-\uhlillle r('- 
yelation;:) \\rhich his dyiuO" vi:sions ßlight have bc. 
queatht'(l to them. Ilis fllvonritc ,vife ,Ayrsha 
hung over her hu
ballù in Ill) la
t n10Inel1
taining his drooping head upon her hnee, a . he lay 
strPtched upon the carpet, watehiu!! ,vith trern.. 
blinO" anxiety hi:3 chauo"ino' ountcn.ulcc, nnd lis. 
tPning- to the last brokt 1 Jl 
uunds of hi
 yoic{', IIiq 
disea::;e, as i dre'v to\vards its ternlination, 'v
tenùeù at intervals ,\rith Ino::;t cxerueiating pains, 
,vhich he constantly ascribed to thp fatal nlorsel 
takcn at Chaibar; and as the n10ther of llashar, 
thp companion ,,,ho had died upon the 6pot from 
the saU1e canse, 8tood by his :-;idt', I1P (\'\.clauucd, 
" 0 J110ther of 13
har, the corùs of Iny heart arc 
no,\- brpaking of the food ,vhieh I atp ,,-ith your 
son at Chaibar." In hi:-; ("on, crsation ,vith those 
around hin}, he Inentioned it as a special preroga- 
tive granted to him, that the ang-pI of death ,vas 
not allo"reù to take his soul tin he had respect- 
fully asked his permission of hiln, and this ppr- 

ion he cuuùesccndingly g ralltf'd 11ecovcring 
from a s,voon into ,vhich the violence of his pains 
had thro,vn him, he raised his eyc:; towards the 
roof of the house, and ,vith faltering accents ex



claimed, " 0 God! pardon my sins. Yes, I come 
among my fellow-labourers on high!" His face 
was then sprinkled with water, and that by his 
own feeble hand, ,vhen he shortly after expired. 
The city, and more especially the house, of the 
prophet, became at once a scene of sorrowful, but 
confused, lalnentation. Some of his followers 
could not believe that he was dead. " How can 
he be dead, our ,vitness, our intercessor, our Ine- 
diator with God 1 He is not dead. Like Moses 
and Jesus he is ,vrapped in a holy trance, and 
speedily will he return to his faithful people." The 
evidence of sense \vas disregarded, and Omar, 
brandishing his scimitar, threatened to strike off 
the heads of the infidels who should affirm that 
the prophet ,vas no JllOre. The tumult was at 
length appeased by the moderation of Abubeker. 
" Is it Mohammed," said he, "or the God of lVIoham... 
med, whom ye worship 1 The God of Mohammed 
liveth for ever, but the apostle was a mortal like 
ourselves, and, according to his own prediction, he 
hath experienced the common fate of mortality."* 
The prophet's remains were deposited at Me. 
clina, in the very room in which he breathed his 
st, the floor being removed to make way for his 
s.epulchre, and a simple and unadorned monument 
some time after erected over them. The house 

*" :\Iohammed is no more than an apostle: the other apostles have 
already deceased before him: if he die, thereforc, or be slain, will ya 
turn back on your heels 1"-Koran, ch. Hi. 
U Verily, thou, 0 Mohammed, shalt die, .and they shall die; and ye 
sball debate the matter [idolatry] with one another before your Lord at the 
dt;\y of resurrection."-Jbid. cb. xxxi



Lself has long sin 'e Illoulùcreù or been dCJIIO- 
lished, but the place of the prophet's intenncllt is 

till lliade con
picuou:::, to th 
titiou:-" r(\vc- 
rellce of his disciplr::;. 'rhe story of hi
 r 'lic'\ be- 
ing su
penùcd in the air, by th. po\\-cr uf load- 

tone, in an iron coffin, and that too at '1 ('("(.a, 
instead of ...\leùina, is a Jßcre idle fabFÏcation; a
his tomb dot the latter J>Iace ha
 hcen vi
it('d hy 
ll1ÏlIions of piIgrÏ1ns, and froul th A authentic ac- 
cuunts of traveHers ,vho have vi
ited both thc
hol} cities in disguÍse, \\re 1 'arn that it is ("un,. 
structed of plain luason '\9orh., fixed ,vithout eleva- 
tion upon the surface of the ground. 




Reflections 'upon tlie extraordinary Career 0/ Jlohammed-Description. 
qf his Person-General View and Esttmate qf llis Character. 

THUS closed the earthly career of one of the 
most remarkable men, and of decidedly the most suc- 
cessful ÏInpostor, that ever lived. By the force of 
a vast ambition, giving direction to native talents of 
a superior order, he had risen from small begin.. 
nings to the pinnacle of po,ver among the Arab 
nation, and before his death had commenced one 
of the greatest revolutions known in the history or 
lllan_ lIe laid the foundation of an empire, ,vhich, 
in th
 short space of eight years, extended its 
s,vay over more kingdoms and countries than Rome 
had mastered in eight hundred" And "Then 'Vê 
pass from the political to the religious ascendency 
\vhich he gained, and consider the rapid gro,vth t 
the wide diffusion, and the enduring pernlanence 
of the IVlohammedan imposture, we are still more 
astonished" Indeed, in this, as in every other in.. 
stance ,vhere the fortunes of an individual arc 
entirely disproportioned to the means employed, 
and surpa:ss all reasonable calculation, ,ve are 
forced to resolve the problem into the special pro..r 
vidence of God l\othing short of this could have 
secured the achievement of such mighty rcsults; 
and \ve must doubtless look upon Mohammedanisnl 



at the present day as a standing monUlnrnt of the 
mysterious "Ì::;ÙOlll of. Jehovah, ùc
igned to conl- 
pass end
 'v hich arc bcyond the ra.p of human 
lt le
lst till the} 
lrc accontplishcd. 
.A.s to hili pcr"'on, 'Iohamlned, according to his 
Arabic hiographers, ,vas of a midùling stature and 
of a florid COJllplc
i()H. IIis head "a
 large .:illd 
,veIl fOrIned; his hair SlDooth and of a glossy 
black; his eye of the sanlC colour; and so un- 
commonly yigurou
 and rohust ,va!:' hi
uIlc, that 
at the tune of hi::; death scar 
cl y an} of the Inarks 
or infinnities of aCTe had appC'arcd upon him. IIi. 
(catures '" ere larg{', rct f('!,TUlar; his checks full; 
his forehead promincnt; his cycbro"p 10llCT ðnd 
5lnooth, mutually approaching e
lch other, yet not. 
so a
 to ffil\et. 
lnd bctwecn thenl ,\ as a vein, of 
,vhich the pulsc ""as quicker and higher than usual 
,vhcnever he ""as angry. lIe had an aquiline 
e and a large mouth, "ith t eth of ..,ingular 
brilliancy and sOlne"phat singular form, as they 
,vcre pointed like the teeth of a sa,v, and placed 
at somt') di
tance frOlll each other, though still in 
beautiful order. "hen he lauo-heù he di 'covered 
them, and they appeared, if tradition may be cre- 
dited, like hail-stones or little ,vhite pearls. Even 
his laughter is said to have been full of majesty, 
and in his smile therc ,vas such a peculiar contrac- 
tion of the muscles of the mouth and cheeks, and 
such an expression given to the countenance, as 
rendered it irresistibly attractive. In his later 
years he became corpulent; but he had always a 



free, open air, a 111ajestic port, and a most engaging 
'The Moslem ,vriters are unbounded in their eu- 
logy of the prophet's character as a lllan. Even 
those of them ,vho treat as it ùeserves the foolish 
fiction of his having been taken by t\vo angels in 
his childhood, his body laid open by a knife, his 
he3;Tt taken out, and pressed, and ,vrung, tin its 
original corruptions oozed out in the form of large 
black fetid drops, ,vhen it ,vas again replaced, pu- 
rified and perfect, in his bosonl, and the ,vound 
n1iraculously healed, still 1naintain that his moral 
qualities ,vere such as to lift hiln quite out of the 
grade of the COll1mon race of n1en. But here the 
history of his life and the pages of the Koran ,vi!l 
enable us to n1ake those abatelnents ,vhich, in re- 
spect to his personal accomplishments, ,ve can only 
suspect ought to be made. His followers extol 
his piety, veracity, justice, liberality, humility, and 
self-denial, in all ,vhich they do not scnlple to 
propose him as a perfect pattern to the faithful. 
His charity, in particular, they say, ,vas so con- 
spicuous, that he seldom had any money in his 
house, keeping no 1nore than ,vas just sufficient to 
maintain his fanlily, and frequently sparing even a 
part of his own provisions to supply the necessi- 
ties of the poor. All this n1ay have been so, but 
in forn1jng our judgment of the exhibition of these 
moral traits, ,ve cannot forget that he had private 
ends to ans,ver, and ,ve thus find it impossible to 
distinguish between the generous impulses of a 



kind and noble heart, and the actings of an in e- 
rested policy. It is no unusual thincr for (I strong 
ruling pa
sion to bring evcry other passion even 
the n10st opposite and dis "ordallt, into hannonr 
and subservient"Y to it:-, dictates. Ambition ,vill 
SOlUCtUllCS control avari "e, anù th} love of plea- 
sure not unfrequently govern both. A Juan Juay 
afford to he just and genprous, and to act the part 
of a ,cry saint, ,vhen he ha
 no lcs
 a 11lOtivC be- 
fore hiln than to gain the character of a prophet 
and th
 Po\\ C'r of d monarch. If 'lohamITI()d rC'- 
ally evinced the virtues of a prophet, he douhÙcss 
had his eye upon U a prophct's rc\vard." Hut ,ve 
,,,'ould not be g-ratuitou!'ly harðh in 01. judgment 
of the ilnpostor's nloral qualities. \\ e think it by 
no means improbahle, that his disposition ,vas natu- 
rally free open, noble, eng(l
ng, pcrh(tp
mouse '" e doubt not injustice Inay have been 
done by Christian ,vriters to the ,nan in their un- 
measured detestation of the ilnpostor. _But as long 
as ,ve aùmit the truth of histOI y, as it rclates to 
Islamism and its finlluler, it is plain, that if he ""ere 
originally possessed of prai
e,vorthy attributes, 
they ce'tsed to distinguish him as he advanced in 
life; for his personal Jcgeneracy kept pace ,vith 
his success, and his delinquencies becalne more 
nUlnerous, gross, and glaring, the longer he lived. 
Of his intellectual endo,\wents, his follo\vers 
spea1. in the san1C strain of high panegyric. His 
genius, soaring above the need of culture, unaided 
by the lights of learning, despising books, bore 
him by its innate strength into the kindred subli- 



mities of prophecy and poetry, and enabled him 
in the Koran, "\vithout models or masters, to speak 
,vith an eloquence unparalleled in any human pro- 
duction. But here it has escaped them, tha
praise the prophet at the expense of his oracles; 
that whatever credit, on the score of authorship, 
they give to hin1, so llluch they detract from the 
evidence of its inspiration; since Mohammed him- 
self constantly appeals to his revelations as pro- 
ceeding from an " illiterate prophet," and therefore 
carrying "\vith them, in their unequalled style, the 
clearest Jvid3nce of being, 110t a hun1an, but a di- 
vine composition. On the point, however, of ihe 
literary merits of the Koran, and of the mental 
endowluents of its author as evinced by it, the 
reader will judge for himself: \Ve can more rea- 
dily assent to their statements when they inform us, 
that his intellect was acute and sagacious, his me- 
mory retentive, his knowledge of human nature, 
Í1nproved as it was by travel and extended inter- 
course, profound and accurate, and that in the arts 
of insinuation and address he ,vas ,vithout a rival. 
Neither are ,ve able to gainsay their accounts 
when they represent him as having been affable, 
rather than loquacious; of an even cheerful ten1- 
per; pleasant and familiar in conversation; and 
possessing the art, in a surprising degree, of at- 
taching his friends and adherents to his person. 
On the whole, from a candid survey of his life 
and actions, we may safely pronounce Mohammed 
to have been by nature a man of a superior cast 
pf character, and very considerably in advance of 



the age In ,vhich he liveù. But the age and the 
count] y in \vhich he arose and ShOll \,,"cre rude 
and barbarous; and the standard "hich "ould 
detprnline him great among the roving triùes of 
Arabia might ha\ c l(1ft hiru littll' more than a 
conunon man in the cultivat.d cli.llleS of Europe. 
l\lcn's characters are moulùed as uluch by their 
circumstances and fortunes by th{1ir native ge- 
llius anù bias. Under another combination of ac- 
cidents, the founder of the ..\Ioslem faith and of the 
cl11pire of the 
aracens nlight have 
Ullh to obIi- 
"ion \vith the anonynlous n1Ílliol1s of his race, as 
the drops of rain an. ab30rbcd into the sands of 
his native deserts. II is ,vhole hi:story nlakcs it 
evidcnt, that. fanaticisln, ambition, and lust '" ere 
his master-passions; of ,vhich the former appears 
to have been gradually eradicated by the gro,,
strcngth of the t"..o last. An enthusiast by nature, 
hp became 3 hypocrite by policy; and as the \Tio. 
nce of his corrupt propensities increased, he 
scrupled not to gratify them at the expense of 
truth, justice, friendship, and hlunanity. It is 
right, indeed, in forming our estiulate of his con- 
duct in its most repulsive respects, that ,ve should 
make allowance for the ignorance, the prejudices, 
the manners, the la,,"s of the people among ,vhom 
he lived. A heathen people cannot be fairly 
judged by the rules of Christian morality. In 
the nlere circumstance of multiplying his ,vives, 
he follo,ved the COlnmon example of his country- 
men, '\\.ith whom polygamy had been, from the 
earliest ages, a prevailing practice. And so, though 



we cannot justify, yet we may in some measure 
palliate, the l11urder of Caab and Sophyan, if we 
supposed the prophet to have viewed them as ene- 
mies from whom his own life was in jeopardy; for 
in this no violence was done to the common senti- 
ments of the Arab race. Even at the present day, 
among the prophet's disciples all over the East, 
no trait is more COffilllon or more revolting than 
recklessness of life, ,vhich is doubtless to be ascribed 
as much to national habits as to a native cruelty or 
ferocity of disposition. 'Ve must, indeed, think 
but little of the morality of such a people, and 
must behold with indignation a pretended prophet, 
while professing to purify the moral code of his 
countrymen, continuing still in the practice of some 
of the worst of its tenets. Here, in fact, our hea.. 
viest condemnation falls upon Mohammed. He 
did not observe those rules of rnorality which he 
himself laid down, and which he enforced upon 
others by such terrible sanctions. No excuse can 
be offered for the impostor on this score. He 
abused his claims as a prophet to screen the guilty 
excesses of his private life, and under the pretence 
of a special revelation, dispensing him from tho 
laws imposed by his own religion, had the female 
sex aban1.C "led ,vithout reserve to his desires. 
" 0 prophet, ,ve have allo,ved thee thy ,vives unto 
,vhom thou hast given their do,ver, and also the 
slaves which thy right hand possesseth, of the 
booty which God hath granted thee; and the 
daughters of thy uncle and the daughters of thy 
aunts, both on thy father's side and ?ll thy mother's 

LIFE 0 IOIlA)f)lED. 


side, who have fled with thee ftom' 
cca, and any 
other believing 'VOlllau, jf she ive hcrs -If unto th 
prophet; in Cdse the prophet dûsireth to take her 
to wife. Tilli is a peculiar privilege rranted unto 
thee, above the rest of th(' true b Jlic\ Crb." "rhp 
exceedingly liberal grant thu:-. nl(ldc to the prophet 
on the 
core of Inatrllnonia] pri\'ilege Iuay be con.. 
trastcd ,vith the allo,vance m(lllC' to hi:i followers. 
" 1
ah.t. in nlarriarre of 
uch "OIllcn a
 plclli5 you 
t\,.o, threc, or four; and not nlorc. llut if ye fc(tr 
that yc cannot act equitably to,vards so luany, 
ul(lrry one OlÙY. "t 
Respect to dcconun forbids our entcring into de.. 
tails rC'lative tu this part of \JohalUJnf'd's conduct 
and character. llut fr0l11 \\ hat has uecn already 
adduced, the reader cannot hen e f:.Úlcd to percei,e 
ho\v completely the proph .t's Ï1npo:s UTe ,vas Inade 
an cngine for prol11oting the gratitication of "cnsual 
passion. One of the gro

t instance
 of hi
hallo,vcd abuse of the claiuls to ,vruch he pre- 
tended occurs III the histlJ.L y of his intercourse ,vith 

Iary, an Egyptian slave. The kno,vledge of his 
it amour
 "ith this "pOSSCS

f)YA of his right 
hand" having come to the ears, or rather to the 
eyes, of one of his la,vful wives, who thereupon 
Icproached him most bitterly for his infiùelity, he 
ent so far, in order to pacify her, as to promise 
\vith an oath neyer to be guilty of a repetition of 
the offence. But the infirmity of nature having 
not long after triumphed again over the strength of 
his resolution, he had recour
e to his revelations 
1ft Koran, ch. xxxiii. t (;h. Iv. 



to cover the scandal of this shameless lapse. The 
expedient no,v resorted to forms one of the black- 
est stains upon the pages of the Koran, and upon 
the character of its author. It was nothing less 
than a pretended absolution of the prophet from 
the obligation of his oath. "0 prophet, ,vhy 
holdest thou that to be prohibited ,vhich God hath 
allowed thee, seeking to please thy wives; since 
God is inclined to forgive, and n1erciful1 God hath 
allowed you the dissolution of your oaths, and God 
is your Mastcr."* Here is an alleged dispensa- 
tion of the prophet, which must be construed as 
actually legalizing perjury on the part of a pro- 
fessed messenger of truth; one too who thus in- 
structs his followers: "Perform your covenant 
with God, when ye enter into covenant with 
him, and violate not your oaths after the ratifica... 
tion thereof; since ye have made God a witness 
over you. Verily, God knoweth that which ye do. 
And be not like unto her who undoeth that ,vhich 
she hath spun, untwisting it after she hath twisted 
it strongly." "Therefore take not your oaths be- 
tween you deceitfully, lest your foot slip after it 
hath been steadfastly fixed, and ye taste evil in 
this life, and suffer a grievous punishment in the 
life to come. "t This is but too fair a specimen 
of the general character of the Koran. By far 
the greater part of its contents were fabricated to 
answer particular purposes, which he could effect 
in no other way; and this was an expedient which 
never failed. If any new enterprise ,vas to be 
· Koran, ch. lxV'Ï. t Ch. xvi. 



undertaken, any ne", objections aIls,vercd, any diffi. 
culty to be solved, any disturbance among hi
lo\vcrs to be hushed, or au off{'nCl
 to bt a rCllloved, 
Îluluediate recours a ,vas had to Gabriel, and a lle,v 
revelation, precisely adapted to roLet the nccc
ties of the ca
c, "'as gTantcd. \s an ÏllÜ\ it bI 
consequence, a vast nUlnber of variations and con- 
tradictions, too palpablp to be denied, occur in tit' 
course of the hook. IIis eOlnnlcntators and ÙÏ:-3- 
ciples aClulO\V ledge the fact, but a .count for it by 
saying, that "rhene, er a subsequent rpvt'lation 
pldinl r contraùicts c1 fOfIner, the fonner is to be 
 haying been revoked or repealed b} 
the latter; and ahove a hundred and fifty ,"crses 
are enumerated as ha" iug bcen thus set asiùe by 
atler-ùiscoverics of the di\ in
 ,,,ill. In this thc} 
are countenanced by thp '\
ords of du' illlpo
bill1sclf. " "rhatcv 'r vcrse "-e shall abrogate, or 
cause thee to forget, \\ e ,,-ill bring a Letter than it, 
or one like unto it." " ""hen "'e I:)ubstitute in the 
I{oran an abrogating verse in lieu of a "erse abro. 
gateù (and God best kno\veth the fitues" of that 
,vhich he revealeth), the inficl(\l:s say, 'fhou art 
only a forger of these vcrses: but the greatcr part 
of thcln kno\\ not the truth from falsehood. "t 
'Vhen this feature of their rcligion is ohjectcd to 
modem ::\Iohalnmedalls, as it ,vas by IIenry l\lar- 
tYl1 in his controversy ,vith them, they reply, that 
"this objection is altogcther futile; for the pre- 
cepts of God are al,vays delivercd ,vith a special 
regard to the necessities of his servants. And 
.. Koran, ch. H. t Ch. xvi. 



there can be no doubt that these must vary with 
the varying exigences of the times in which they 
are delivered. The divine Lawgiver m
y here 
be considered as the spiritual physician of his 
people; who, like a temporal physician, prescribes 
such regimen and medicines as are most likely to 
suit the wants of his patient.". The pupil here is 
certainly worthy of the master, when they both 
agree in teaching, that the grand principles of mo- 
rality are not eternal and inlmutable, gro,ving out 
of the very nature of the relation subsisting bet\veen 
the Creator and his creatures, but are mere arbi- 
trary rules, subj ect to be relaxed, Inodified, or dis- 
pensed with, as cirCUlnstances may dictate. See- 
ing that this pitiful device of feigning dispensa- 
tions and abr r g2,tions of particular duties subjects 
the immutall
 counsels of the Almighty to the 
charge of ,veakness and fickleness, it is surprising 
that his disciples should have been blinded by so 
flitnsy a disguise; yet such is evidently the fact. 
And it adds another proof of the truth of the re- 
mark, that as there is no error or absurdity in reli- 
gion too monstrous to be conceived or broached, 
so there is none too gross to be imposed upon the 
credulity of others. 

fr Lee's Translation of H. Martyn's Controversial Tracts. 




Account of the Prophet's \\ï1'tS-Cadijah-Ay .,ha-Hqfsa-Zdnab- 
Safya-Ht8 COll,LubÙlts-Si
u1ar Precepts in the Koran reorp clift 
the n"'ÌlJes 0/ .11oha' comparatIVe Treatment '!f J
ws Q1l..(1 
Christiml,.!-Predict;ons of the Prophet alle"m by Uohamm dan.t to 
b contained in the sacred Scriptures. 

\ s the suhject of ,vomcn occupies a prominent 
place in the !{.oran, sO in d complete history of the 
prophet's life his .nulnerous ,vives, of ,vhich the 
number is variously stated from fifteen to t,vcnty- 
one, form a topic of too llluch interest to be 
omi tted. .. 
During the lifetime of Cadijah, it docs not ap- 
pear that she ".as ever paineù ,vith the sight 01 
suspicion of a rival. ,After her death, ,vhen at 
length his reputation as a prophet had become c
tabli:-Jhcd, anù his authority too firmly rooted to be 
shaken, the restraints ,vhich policy had imposed 
upon passion 'v ere gradually thro,vn ofT; and the 
most unlinlÌted license in this respect marked his 
subsequent conduct. 
His third and best beloved wife ,vas A yesha, 
the daughter of Abubeker, ,vholn he Inarried in 
the first year of the Hejira. ,r ague Tllffiours of 
conjugal infidelity have cast a stain upon the cha- 
racter of A yesha not entirely effaced even at the 
ent day. They ,vere not believed, however, 
by tile prophet, and the divine ...cquittal in the 
twenty-fourth chapter of the Koran has done much 



towards shielding hèr faIne from reproaclJ. "As 
to the party among you, ,vho have published the 
falsehood concerning Ayesha--every man of them 
shall be punished according to the injustice of 
which he hath been guilty; and 
e among thelll 
,vho hath undertaken to aggravate the same shall 
suffer a grievous punishment. Did not the faith- 
ful men and the faithful ,vomen say, This is a mani- 
fest falsehood 1 Have they produced four witnesses 
thereof? '''Therefore, since they have not pro- 
duced the ,vitnesses, they are surely liars in the 
sight of God. Had it not been .for the indulgence 
of God tu\vards you, and his lnercy in this ,vorld" 
and in that which is to COIne, verily a grievous- 
punishment had been inflicted on you for the ca- 
lumny ,vhich ye have spread; ,vhen ye published 
that with your tongues, and spoke that with your 
mouths, of ,vhich ye had no kno,vledge; and es- 
teemed it to be light, whereas it ,vas a matter of 
importance in the sight of God."* 
A yesha was married-such is the surprising phy- 
sical precocity peculiar to an eastern climate-at 
the early age of nine; and survived her husband 
forty-eight years. Her memory is held in great ve- 
neration by the Moslems, who have bestowed upon 
her the title of Prophetess, and IJfother of the Faith- 
ful, probably from the circumstance of her being 
much resorted to after her husband's death, as an 
expositor of the doubtful points of the la,v; an of- 
fice which she performed by giving the sense which 

", Koran, cb. xiv. 



 had heard the prophet aflix to them ill his life.. 
tiIue. I-Ier p:x-pu
itions, togethl'r ,vith those of 

IohalnJned"s lìnst ten convcrt
 Conn" hat is 
called the Sannal" or the .iluth ntic 'l"raditiolls, of 
the profcssol
 of IslaTll, "hi(.h brar a 
triking rp.. 
selnblancc to the traùitions of th 
 J l'''"s. A ye
,vas the inveterate eUPluy of _\.li, the rival canùi- 
date ,\rith Abuheker to thl l honour of being the 
prophct's successor; anù" hen at la
t he attained 
to that dignity, she appeared in arm') against hin1. 
lIer c:xpeJition "d
 indeed l1nsuccl'
sful, ) ('t 
founù lueans, sorne tinlc aftcr, to cxeitc a defec- 
tion anlong Ali's folIo" ers, \\ hich Jiually resulted 
in the ruin of himself alld his hou
IIafsa, the daughter of Omar, ,vas next in fa- 
vour ,vith the prophet. 'ro her, as bcinO' the elùest 
of hi
 wives, he cODlmiUed thl) Che!;t of his apoh- 
tleship, containing the original copies of his pre- 
tended revelations, fron1 ,,"hich the ,'olume of the 
}{oran was compo
ed after his ùeath, by Abubeker. 
She died at tbe age of SLxty -si..
. Zeinab, another of his wi" es, ,vas originally the 
,vife of his servant Zeid; upon ,vholn, a
 "e learn 
from the l{oran, God had besto,ved the grace to 
become one of the earliest converts to the true 
faith. 'fhe circumstances which led to her be- 
coming the wife of the prophet, form a story ,vorth 
relating. :!.\Iohamn1eù, having occasion, one ùay, 
to call at the hou
e of Zeid upon some matter of 
, and not fmding hun at home, accidentally 
cast his ðyes on Zeinab his ,vire. Bcing a ,vo- 
man of distinguisheù beauty, the prophet ,vas so 


LIFE OF I\'rOHAl\ll\fED. 

smitten ,vith her charms at first sight, that he 
could not forbear exclaiming, " Praised be God, 
who turneth the hearts of men as he pleaseth I" 
and thenceforth became violently in love with her. 
Zeid, ,vhen made acquainted ,vith the circum- 
stance, was thro,vn into great perplexity. His af- 
fection for his ,vife and his wish to retain her 
were counterbalanced by his sense of obligation to 
his master, who had not only freed him from ser- 
vitude, but had also publicly adopted him as hii 
son and heir, by a religious ceremony at the black 
stone of the Caaba. Upon mature reflection 
determined to part with Zeinab in favour of his be- 
nefactor, whom he privately acquainted with his 
intention, at the same time giving out in public, 
that he no longer retained any affection for her, in 
order to pave the way for a divorce. Mohammed, 
aware of the scandal that would ensue among his 
people, from his taking to his bed one who stood 
to him in the relation of a daughter, made a feint 
of dissuading him from his purpose, and endea- 
voured to suppress the violence of his passion. 
But finding the flame which consumed him uncon- 
querable, a chapter of the Koran came seasonably 
to his relief, which at once removed all impedi- 
ments in the way of a union. " And remember, 
when thou saidst to him unto whom God had been 
gracious (Zeid), and on ,vhom thou also hadst 
conferred favours, keep thy wife to thyself and fear 
God; and thou didst conceal that in thy mind (i. e. 
thine affection to Zeinab) which God had deter.. 
mined to discover. and didst fear men; whereas it 



'vas more just that thou shoulù
 fear God But 
,vhen Zeid had detennincù the matter concerning 
her and had resoh'cd to di\ orc..' her, "e joined 
her in luarriage lUlto thee, lest a crin1C 
hould bp 
charged on the true believers in marryin th" ,vives 
of thcir adoptc{J sons: 
ul(l th. c\)mmand of God 
is to be perforn1cd. No crime is to be charged 
on the prophet as to ,,,hat God hath allo\\
ed hilll." 
HLre the :\108t IIigh is represented not only as 
sanctioning the Juarriagt"', but as COIl' eying a gen- 
tle rebuke to the prophet, that he should 
o long 
have abstained from the cnjoyn1cnt of this favour 
out of regard to public bentillH'nt, as though he 
feared men rather than God! r 'Ï.llab hereupon 
became the ,vife of this most favoured of mortals, 
and lived "ith him in great afff\ction to th · time 
of his death; al \\ ays gloryin u over her associate..;, 
that ,,
hereas they had been married to )Iohammed 
by their parcnt
 and kindred, sh(' had been 
united to hun by God Muself, ,vho d\vells above 
the seven heavens! 
Another of his ,vi,
es, Safya, ".as a J ewess. Of 
her nothing ren1arkable is related, ex oept that she 
once coulplained to her husband of being thus re- 
proached by her companions: "0 thou J e\\Tess, 
the daughter of a J c," and of a J ewcss." To 
hich the prophet ans,,"ered, "Canst thou not say, 
Aaron is my father, .:\Ioses is my uncle, and Mo- 
hammed is my husband 1" But in reference to 
these insulting taunts, an admonition ,vas conveyed 

.. Koran ch. xxxiii. 



to the offenders from a higher source than the pro- 
phet himself: "0 true believers, let not men 
laugh other men to scorn, who peradventure may 
be better than themselves; neither let women laugh 
other women to scorn, who may possibly be bet- 
ter than themselves. Neither defame one another, 
nor call one another by opprobious appellations."* 
In addition to his wives, the hareln of the pro- 
phet contained a nUlnber of concubines, among 
,vhom Mary, the Egyptian, was his favourite. By 
her he had a son, IbrahiIn (Abrahaln), \vho died 
in infancy, to the unspeakable grief of the prophet 
and his disciples. He had no children by any of 
the rest of his ,vives except Cadij ah, who was the 
mother of eight-four sons and four daughters; but 
most of these died in early life, none of them sur- 
viving their father except Fatima, the ,vife of Ali, 
and she only sixty days. 
The follo,ving passages frolll the !{oran evince 
that not the prophet only ,vas an object of the di- 
vine care, benefice"nce, and guidance, but that his 
,vives also shared in the same kind providence, and 
that whatever instructions or amnonitions their 
frailties might require ,vere graciously bestowed 
upon them. From an infirmity not uncommon to 
the sex, they had become, it appears, more devoted 
to the decoration of their persons than ,vars credit- 
able for the wives of a holy prophet, and had de- 
manded of hiln a larger allowance on the score of 
dress than he deemed it prudent to grant. They 

" Koran, cb. xlix. 

are thus rebuked: u 0 prophet, say unto thy 
,,;ves If ye 
e('k this pr('
l'nt lif(' and the pOTOp 
 come, 1 "yill luake a handsome provision 
for rou, and J ,viII dismiss you ,,'ith an honourable 
disnussion: but if yc sceh. C';od and his t(lpu
and the life to COJ1le, ycrily God hath preparcd for 
sue h of you as ,vork righteollsne
s a great re- 
"'ard." " 0 ,,'ives of the prophet, ye dTC not c.iS 
other ,vomcn: if ye fear (
od, be not too com- 
plaisant in specch lpst he 
hould ro'\ ct in ,vhos 
heart is a ùisease of incontincnce; but speak tl1 
speech ,vhich is COIlyellient. Anù sit still in your 
houses; and set not out your
 ,vith the osten- 
tation of the fonner time of ignorance, aud ob'-'ervc 
the appointed tim
 of prayer, and give alms; and 
obey God and his apostle; for -rud drsircth only 
to relnùve fronl you th abomination of vanity, 
sinre re are th(' houf->ehold of th(' p:ophet, and to 
pnrify you by a pcrff1ct purification. "t 
The prophet interdict 3d to all his ,,'ivcs the pri- 
,'ilcge of marrying again after his death, and 
though SOlllC of then1 "ere then young, tlH
y scru- 
pulously obeyed his command, delivcred to thèm, 
like every thing else in the J{oran, in 
e form of 
a n1andate of heaven, and lived a'1d died in ,vido,,- 
hood. The passage in ,vhich this se, ere edict is 
found is a curio.:;ity, and ,viII doubtless lead the 
reader to suspect that it ,vas prol1lpted by a spirit 
of mean jealousy, the effects of which he aimed 
to perpetuate ,vhen he ",..tS no morc. It is pre 

oran, ch.XJJdiL 

t Ib1d. 




faced by some wholesome cautions to his followers 
respecting the etiquette to be observed in their in- 
tercourse with the prophet and his household. 
" 0 true believers, enter not into the houses of 
the prophet, unless it be permitted you to eat 
meat ,vith him, ,vithout ,vaiting his convenient 
time; but ,vhen ye are invited, then enter. And 
when ye shall have eaten, disperse yourselves; and 
stay not to enter into familiar discourse; for this 
incomlnodeth the prophet. He is ashamed to bid 
you depart, but God is not ashamed of the truth. 
And ,vhen ye ask of the prophet's ,vives what ye 
may have occasion for, ask it of them behind a 
curtain. This will be lllore pure for your hearts 
and their hearts. Neither is it fit for you to give 
any uneasiness to the apostle of God, or to marry 
his wives after him for ever; for this \vould be a 
grievous thing in the sight of God."* 
In the outset of his career, l\lohammed appears 
to have been more favourably disposed towards the 
Jews than the Christians. This is inferred from 
his enjoying with them a COlllmon descent from 
the patriarch Abraham; from his agreenlent with 
them in the fundamental doctrine of the divine 
unity; and from his proffering to make Jprusalem 
the point of pilgrimage and of the I(ebla to his fol- 
lowers. But conceiving a pique against them 
about the time of his entrance into Medina, he 
thenceforward became their inveterate en.emy, and 
in all his wars pursued theln with a more relentless 

* Koran, ell. xxxiii. 



severity than he sho,ycd to,,"arùs any other people. 
Thus this descendant uf T
]nna('l, ,,"ithout intend- 
ing it, made good the declaration of huly "rit re- 
sppcting the antagonist sc 
 of lIagar and of :--;a- 
rah. "For it i:-, ".rith
n tha.t .4\ brahanl had 1\\ 0 
sons, the one by a bond-illaid the oth('r hy a fre(' 
,volnan. Hut he ,vho \\ as of the bOlld-,volnan 
,vas born aftt
r the f1e
h; but he of the frl' 
,vas bY' prolni
e. Jlut as then h(' that" as born 
after the flesh pcrsccuted hinl that ,,"as horn aft Ir 
the spirit, {'yen bO it ið nu\v." Thtl" oppu
itil n 
to him can ea:sil y be ac
oullted for on thp 
...orc of 
national and religious prejudice. _\nd the oppro- 
brious ndmp ,vhich they gin e to the (.omlpt s
 sf< m 
of the heresiarch, tend >d still lliorc to pro\ ol
e Ius 
indignation. .For ,,,hile he profes'-;f d to be a rc- 
storer of the true prirniti, e religion \\ hich (jod {'Olll- 
l11unicated to A.brahanl, and _\.bJ ahanl to his son 
Ishnlael, and ,\""hich the prophet denOlninatcd l:slanl, 
or Islan1isln, flom a ,yord signifying to dt rotr or 
ded 1 "cate to Tf'ligioll, the J e\\'s, by a transposition of 
letters, called the ne,v creed I
1I1aeli..çm, fronl the 
prophet's progenitor, and thus cast the greatest 
possible reproach on the bastard faith of their 
enemy. Thpir etfrontery ::\Iohamlncd neither for- 
got nor forgave. 
tin, both J e,vs and Christians 
,vere admitted to protection in ordinary caSES on 
the payment of a specified tribute. 
To,vards the Chri
tians, though the I
oral1, and 
all ,vho embrace it, breathe the most inveterate ma- 
lice and the most sovereign {.ontcmpt against the 

 Gal. ch. iv. 



"dogs" and" infidels" who profess the Gospel faith, 
yet rather more forbearance is exercised than to- 
wards the Jews; anù some of the Moslems will 
grant, that Christianity, next to their own, is the 
best religion in the ,vorld, particularly as held by 
Unitarians. Yet Mohammed, in the I\.oran, loses 
no opportunity to pour his revilings indiscrÍ1ninately 
upon both. "The J e,vs and the Christians say, 
'Ve are the children of God and his beloved. An- 
s\ver, 'Vhy, therefore, doth he punish you for your 
sins 1"
 " They say, Verily, none shall enter pa- 
radise, except they who are Jews or Christians: 
this is their wish. Say, Produce your proof of 
this, if ye speak truth. The Jews say, The 
Christians are grounded on nothing; and the Chris- 
tiaI:s say, 'The Je,vs are grounded on nothing: yet 
they both read the Scriptures. "t "0 ye, to whom 
the Scripttp es have been given, why do ye dispute 
ccncerning Abraham 1 Abraham was neither a 
J e\v nor a Christian; but he was of the true reli- 
gion, one resigned unLO God, anq was not of the 
numb,- r of idolaters. "t 
The religion of the Koran tolerates Christian 
churches in places \vhere t
ley have been anciently 
founded, but perm;"" them not to be reared on new 
foundations. Chr

tians may repair the walls and 
roofs of their places of worshif't but are not 
allowed to lay a stone in a new place consecrated 
to the site of a holy building; nor, if fire or any 
other accident shoulà destroy the superstructure, 
are they suffered to renew the foundations, so as 
.,. Koran, ch. v. t Cù. fie 
 Ch. iii. 



to erect another buildin{T. The COll'3eqllence is, 
that Christian churche
, in the 'fuharnmC(tln do- 
minions, Ulust nece
sarily at ICD Ttll 
ink to ruin, 
and vast numbers of thClll have alrea.dy {Tone en- 
tirf'ly to decay. In the great fires ,vhirh happened 
in Galat,l and Constantinople in l{j(jO, BUIn 
Christian churches and chapels ,verc reduced to 
, and ""hen thC' pi(.tr and .f'al of their, ota- 
ries had re-eiliticd and alrnost C01l1plcted the great- 
est nUlubcr of thcrn, a public ord('r ,vas issucd that 
they should all be again df'rllolishcd, it beiug judged 
contrary to 'rurkish la \v to penuit the rc...;toration 
of churches ,vhere nothing but the mere founòation 
'rhc fact 111J. y be here ad \"crteù to, in òra \ving 
our sketch to a close, that .L\lohalnlncù nof only 
adnÜttcd thc Old and N c,v 'rf'starnents a
inspired books, though corrupted by their di::>ciples, 
but afiirlned that they bore unequivocal prophetic 
testimony to hi
 future mis:sion as prophet and 
apostle: "Anù ,vhell J estiS, the SOIl of 
Iary, said, 
o children of Israel, Verily I am the apostle of 
God sent unto you confirrning th(' law ,vhich "ras 
delivered before Inc, and bringing gooò tidings of 
an apostle ,vho shall comp after me, and ,vhose 
name shall bc .A.hn1cd {l\lohamn1cd)."* In I:)Upport 
of ,vhat is IJlere allpged, the Persian paraphrast 
quotes the ,voròs of Christ in his last address to 
his disciples: "If I go not a,vay, the Comfortpr 
\vill not come unto you; but if I go a"Tay, I ,vill 
send him unto you." 'This passage the 

· Koran, cb. l



signal a srourge to the Church and the civilized 
,,"orld not to be entitled to a place in thl prophetic 
anr:unciations of the Bihlc. .A.s lb. subject of Ùle 
rih(a, progre

, and pe Inanencc of :\lohamnleùan- 
iSlll cannot Ùf' duly appreciated dp(Lrt ftOlll the pre- 
dictions concerning it, ,vc have detennined to dp- 
,ote a portion of the Appenùi.x to the consideration 
of the lllGst promineut anù 
triking- of these pro- 
phecies, to ,vhich the reader .vill pcnnit us to 
bespeak h

( i81 ) 


[ A. ]. 

PROPHECy.-Dan. vii. 8-26. 

8 The he-goat waxed very great: and wht'n 110 was strong. tllf' great 
honl was broken; and for it cnme up {bur notable 0lle9 toward th 
9. four winds of Ilf'8vcn. And out of OHf' of thent CJlrle tbrth a Iittl.. 
hom, which '\
axc,I f'xceeding grt'at toward the ;'outh Bnd tn\\ ard 
10. the eRst, and to\\ anI tht' IÞk:t
ant land. \lId it "a \....1 great C\ f'll (0 
the host of hcav('n; anti it ('a
t do" n I,ornt'ofthr ho
t and 01 th.> hturs 
II. to the ground. and foItamped upon them. \ ra, he magnified hJln
even to the })rilwe of the 110<;t. and by him" ad the dwly acntico 
12. taken away, and tùe place of hl
 san<.'tuary was r3CJt down. And 
a host was given him against the diJIly sacrifice by reason or 
transgre qion; and it cast dO\\'"l1 tbe truth to the ground; and it 
13. practised and pr
peTf'd, Then I heard one saint spf.akin ,Ilull 
another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How 
long shall be the vision conccrnin!!' the daily sacrifice, and the 

r '
ion of desolation, to give hoth the anctuarv dnd tho 
14. host to be trodden under foot 1 And he said unto mp, UlltO two 
and aUII three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be 
21. And the rough goat is the king (kiugdom) of Grecia: Bnd the 
great horn that is between his eyes is the first king- (
22. Now that being broken, whereas tbur stood up for it, four king- 
2J. dom
 shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power. And 
in the latter time of their kingdom, ,\ hen the transg
ors are 
come to the ft1ll, a king- of fierce countenan
e, and understandin ö 
(Heb. making to under
tand, teaching) dark sentences, shall stand 
24. up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: 
and he shaH destroy wonderfully, and shall pro
per) and practise,. 
25. and shall de'itro'. the mighty and the holy people. And through 
IDS policy also he shall eause eraft to prosper in his hand; and he 
* For the materials of this chapter, nnd orrasionally for ROme por. 
tion of the language, the compiler arknowled
es himself indebted prin. 
cipally to Faber's Sacred Calendar of Prophecy, Foster's Mahometanism 
Unveiled, and Fry's Second Advent of Christ. lie has moreover given 
a nùnute and critical attention to these prophecies in the originallan. 




shall Magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall deøtroy 
many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but 
!l6. he shall be broken without hand. And the vision of the evening 
and the morning which was told is true; wherefore shut thou up 
the vision; for it sball be for many days. Dan. vü. 8-26. 
THE prophecy of Daniel contains a prospective 
vie\v of the providential history of the world, in- 
cluding the four great empires of antiquity, together 
with the po\vers which should succeed them to the 
end of time, and consummation of all things. It is 
reasonable therefore to expect, that a system of pre- 
dictions thus large upon the history of the world, 
would not omit a revolution of such Inagnitude and 
pron1Ïnence as that occasioned by Mohammed and 
Mohammedanism. No event, lTIOreOVer, has had a 
more direct and powerful bearing- upon the state of 
the Church than 1he establishment of this vast im- 
posture; and as the preceding chapter contains a 
full and exact portraiture of the Papal tyranny which 
was to arise and prevail in the western portion of 
Christendom, so the present is very generally ad- 
mitted to contain a prediction of that great apostacy 
which was destined to grow up and overwhßlm the 
Church in the East. The reasons of this opinion 
we now proceed to state. 
The theatre of this prophecy is the Macedonian 
empire, founded by Alexander; from one of the 
four dismenlbered kingdofils of which the little 
horn of the vision was to spring up. In the vision, 
the prophet saw the first great horn of the he-goat, 
or the kingdom of Alexander," broken;" indicating 
that that kingdom was no longer to have a place as 
a kingdom in the eye of prophecy. The dominions 
of Alexander at his death \vere divided between 
four of his generals: Macedon and Greece in the 
west ,vere assigned to Cassander; Thrace and Bi- 
thynia in the north to Lysimachus; Egypt in the 
south to PtolenlY; and Syria with the eastern pro- 
vinces to Seleucus. 
Ver. 9. /lnd out '!f one ofthel" camef a little 



horn.-A "horn," in the sY1nbolicallanguag-e of pro- 
phecy, represents a <"ivíl or ecclcsia
tical kingdolll. 
The little horn here mentioned was to COJne forth 
out of one of thl' four notable horn
 or melnùers of 
the subdivided kingdoII1 of AlcÀander. 'fhe ques- 
tion has been lnuch aO'itated ,vhcther Alexander 
seized and retained any portion of the .Arabian penin- 
sula: the fact of his having done so lllay be scen in 
any map of the ::\[acedonian empire. "'fhe empire 
of .Alexander," ouserves :\1. Rollin, " ,vas di
into four kingdon1s; of ,vhich Ptolelny had Egypt, 
Libya, .Ilrabia, Cælosyria, and Palestine." 'rhe dis- 
trict occupied ,vas indeed no JllOre than an outskirt, 
but that outskirt coulprised part of the province of 
Hejaz; that is to say, part of that vcry district ,vhich 
gave birth to l\lohaulmed and his relig-ion.-As the 
horn in the vision" as a little one, so 1\Iohammedan- 
ism in its first rise perfectly corresponded ,vith the 
symbol. It ori
inated ,vith an obscure inhabitant 
of a desert corl1er of A
ia, ,vhose earliest converts 
were his ,vife, his servant, his pupil, and his friend; 
and ,,"hose party at the C'nd of thrée years scarcely 
numbered a dozen persons. 
Which waxed exceeding great tou'ard the south, 
and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. 
-l\lohalnnledallism accordingly, in its primitive 
course of conquest, did presently ,vax exceedingly 
great; and that in the very line marked out by the 
prophecy. Its conquests extended south,vard over 
the large peninsula of .Arabia, over Egypt, and over 
a considerable portion of central Africa; east\\rard, 
over Persia, Bokhara, and Hindostan; and no:th- 
,vard, over Palestine, Asia 'iinor, }1esopotamia, 
Greece, and Tartary, the countries no,,, forming the 
Turkish empire. " The pleasant land," or, literally, 
"the beauty," "the ornament," is an appellation 
bestowed upon the land of Judah, from its being in 
a peculiar manner the residence of the divine glory, 
the seat of worship, containing the city of Jerusalem 



find the temple, ,vhich ,vere " a crown of beauty and 
:t diadem of glory" to the nation of Israel. The ori 
ginal word here employed is found in a parallel sense 
lU Ezek. xx. 6. 15; "a land flowing ,vith milk and 
oney, which is the glo1
 of all lands." Jerusalem 
vIas captured by the Saracens A. D. 637, after a 
6Ìege of four months. 
Ver. 10. .!1nd it waxed great even to the host of 

aven.-The "host of heaven" is but another name 
Ilir the multitude of stars in the firmament. But 
&:.tars, in the idiom of prophecy, are a standing em- 
lem of ecclesiastical officers. The word "host" 
éAccordingly is not only applied to the priests and 
Levites performing the service of the sanctuary 
(N urn. iv. 3), but to the nation of Israel as a great 
organized ecclesiastical body, or kingdom of priests. 
Ex. xii. 41. And when Christ says (Rev. i. 20), 
"the seven stars are the angels of the seven 
churches," his meaning undoubtedly is, that these 
stars are symbols of the spiritual rulers of the 
churches. 'fhe grand scope, therefore, of the pre- 
sent prophecy is, to point out a spiritual desolation, 
achieved by a hostile power suddenly attaining 
great strength, and forcibly thrusting itself into the 
body of true ,vorshippers, ,vith a vie,v to their dis- 
comfiture and dispersion. 
And it cast down some of the host, and (i. e. even) of 
the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.-As in 
the figurative language of prophecy the stars denote 
the spiritual pastors of God's church, so the violent 
dejection of such stars from heaven to earth signifies 
a compulsory apostatizing froln their religion. Mo- 
hanunedanism strikingly fulfilled this prophecy from 
the date of its first prolnulgation, when it stood up 
against the allegorical host, or the degenerate pas- 
tors of the Christian Church. Such of them as lay 
within the territories of the Greek empire 'v ere espe- 
cially given into the hand of this persecuting super- 
stition; but by its inroads into Africa, and Spain, 



and France, and Italy, it \vaxed great against the 
whole host. Of the castenl clergy, it cast some to 
the ground, or compelled then1 altogether to renounce 
the Christian faith. And as for those ,vho still ad. 
hered to the fornl of thcir religion, it stamped them, 
as it ,vere, under its feet \\ ith all the tyranny of 
bnltal fanaticism. 
Ver. 11. Yea, he J1Lagnified hilnsr!f even to the 
Prince of the host.-If the stalTY host be the pastors 
of the Church, the prince of that host must obviously 
be the l\Iessiah. l\lohallunedanisul has l110st clearly 
verified this predictIon by Inagnifying its founder to 
a pitch of dignity and honour cqual to that of Christ. 
In fact, it has set up 
Iohall1111Cd above Christ. rite 
Arabian impostor allo,ved Jesus to be a prophet; but 
he maintained that he hÍlnsclf was a greatcr pro- 
phet, and that the I
oran ,vas destined to supersede 
the Gospel. Thus did l\lohammedanism magnify 
itself" even to" the Prinee of the host. 
.ßnd by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and 
the place of his sanctuary 

as ca.'.t down.- The term 
rendered" daily sacrifice," or, literally, "the daily," 
"the continual," is a term frequently used respect- 
 the daily repeated saerificès of the J e\vish tem- 
ple, typifying the death of Christ till he should come. 
N O\V, ,vhat this continua] burnt-offering ,vas ,vith 
respect to Christ's first coming, are the daily offer- 
ings of prayer and praise, and all the solemnities of 
the Christian Church, as administered by a divinely 
appointed order of lnen. 'Yhen, therefore, the 
Saracens and Turks by their victories and oppres- 
sions broke up and dispersed the churches of the 
East, and abolished the daily spiritual "rorship of 
God, then did the" little horn" take a,vay the" con- 
tinual offering" established by the Prince of the 
host. But the predicted desolation ,vas to extend 
yet farther. The place of God's sanctuary was to 
be razed to its foundation, and both the sanctuary 
and the host for a long course of ages to be trodden 



under foot. Accordingly, :I\lohammedanism began 
this appointed work by the subversion of the Chris- 
tian churches and altars in every stage of its pro- 
gress against the Greek empire; and has continued 
the desolation during nearly twelve hundred years, 
until it has all but cOInpleted the extinction of Eastern 
Christianity. Gibbon observes, that upon the taking 
of Jerusalem, " by the cOInnland of GInar, the ground 
of the tenlple of SOIOITIOn was prepared for the 
foundation of a 1110sque."* And it is ,vorthy of 
notice, that ,vhereas the original ,vord used by 
Daniel for" sanctuary" is Kodsh, the same historian 
relnarks, that the epithet At Kods is used no,v, and 
was then among the Arabs as the proper appellation 
of the Holy City, of which the sanctuary or temple 
,vas the distinguishing ornalnent and glory. 
Ver. 12. And an host was given him against the 
dæily sacrifice by reason of transgression: and it cast 
down the tr'Uih to the ground: and 'l.t practised and 
prospered.-Froln this it ,vould appear, that power 
,vas to be given to the little horn, not merely for the 
subversion of the true religion, but also for the per- 
Inanent substitution of another faith. "Host," ,ve 
may naturally suppose, means in this place the sanle 
as when it ,vas used in a fonner verse,-" a host of 
stars," syn1bolical of the several orders of Christian 
pa.'3tors and ministers. " An host," then, to be given 
to the little horn, implies that he too should have 
his orders of teachers, and a regular system of reli- 
gious worship, and that by means of this ne,v and 
spurious ecclpsiastical polity, the Christian ministry 
should be opposed and superseded, and " the truth 
cast to the ground." The prediction, thus inter- 
preted, according to the natural force of the lan- 
guage and construction, is applicable to no other 
known power; but as applied to the heresy of Mo- 
hammed, its ftùfihnent appears perfect. For the 

lie DEc. and FaU, ..:h. Ii. 



religion of 181al11 pennancntly overthre,v the Chris- 
tian priesthood and altars, by thp pflrmclncut erection 
of other altars and of another pric
thooù in thcir 
room. Every ,vhcre throughout it!:) vast donlains 
the mosques replaced. the Uhri stian temples; and 
the Inlallls and the 'Iuczzill ,vere sub
titutcù for th 
appointed Ininistry of Christ. In a more enlarged 
vic,v, the Saraeens aud Turks t}}(J}}}selvcs cullt- 
po:seù the antagonist host or pricsthood. .For in 
l\lohalnmcdanism, the s,vord bcing the grand engine 
of convcrsion, the \vhole \lllssubllan people' becanl{
vÏrtuallya priesthood; ,uld each iudividual Saracen 
and 'fnrkish soldier a missionary and md.ker uf 
Ver. 23. And in the lattcr tiute of 
hcir kingdom, 
when tlte tralLsgressors are COllie to the full, ct kill{f 
of fierce COlllltenance and understanding (teaching) 
dark sentences, shall stand 'lip. \Ve are here fur- 
nished ,,"ith a chronolog-ical cle,v to the period of 
the COllunencelnent of this disastrous PO\\ er.- The 
first three eInpires, forming a part of the symbolic 
image ,yhich appeared in vision to 
 ebuchadlle r zar, 
\vcre indeed stripped of their don1Ìllions by the con.. 
quests of the fourth, or l
on1an cITlpire; but still, in 
the vie,v of prophecy, their lives are considered as 
being n
vertheless prolonged; Dan. vii. 12. Hence 
it is an indisputable fact that the little horn of 1\10- 
han1n1edanisnl rose up in the latter tÏ111
 of the 
Greek elnpire.-.A.nother striking note of the time 
of the rise of this po,ver is coutained in the ,vords, 
" \Vhen the transgressors are come to the full," or, 
",vhen the apostacy shall be completed." By the 
transgressors or apostates here lnelltioned, \ve must 
understand the corrupt Christian Church, "ith its 
degenerate pastors, the smitten ecclesiastical stars, 
spoken of in a former verse. \Ve learn both fronl 
the civil and s
cred }tÏstory of the time when )10.. 
hamlned arose, that the Christian Chui"ch had then 
arrived at the height of those corruptions in doc-trine 



and practice, \vhich had been so clearly foretold by 
the Apostle Paul in his prediction of the Man of Sin. 
The extraordinary success of the Mohammedan im- 
posture was permitted as a punishment of this great 
defection. The allegorical host, by reason of their 
apostacy from the truth, were subjected to the ty- 
ranny of the little horn. But this apostacy, which 
had long previously infected both the East and the 
West, was completed, or had reached its acme, about 
the commencement of the seventh century, when 
the prophet of Islam first appeared. Gibbon, the 
historian, introduces his account ofl\fohammedanism 
by observing, that" the Christians of the seventh 
century had insensibly relapsed into a selnblance of 
paganism." From this time, therefore, the stars 
were given into the hand of the little horn, as the 
appointed rod of God's anger: they were penally 
consigned to its tyranny by reason of their previous 
apostacy into the idolatrous superstitions of the Gen- 
tiles. Again, as far as the aspect of Mohammedan- 
ism is concerned, that ,vonderful ecclesiastical 
dOlnination lllay ,veIl be described as a "kingdom 
of fierce count.enance," when the avowed maxim 
of its founder was to employ the sword as the grand 
engine of conversion. Of this ferocious spirit its 
proselytes have in all ages largely partaken. Some, 
however, suppose the words should be translated 
" of a finn countenance," denoting the bold effron- 
tery of the barefaced, impudent liar; and such were 
Mohammed and his successors: their religion is, in 
truth, the most glaring imposition that was ever 
palmed upon the credulity of mankind.-As to the 
remaining character of this desolating power-that 
.he should" understand dark sentences"-the expres- 
sion, " dark sentences," is equivalent to the familiar 
scriptural phrases," dark sayings," and" dark say- 
ings of old." These phrases, in the language of 
the sacred writers, will be found uniformly to con- 
vey a spiritual signification. Thus the Psalmist, 



" I ,vill open ß1Y mouth in a parable; I ,vill utter 
dark sayings of old." It S
Clns probable, therefore, 
that the equivalent expres::;ion, '" dark 
relates, in one shape or other, to religiùn; and the 
" understanding- dark sentcu(.c:,," to real or pre- 
tended skill in the interpretation of thing
The l
oran, so celebrated in the 
Iohananedan reli- 
gion, the hook containing" th
ir spiritual mysteries, 
exactly ans,vers to this description. And it is not a 
littlC' ren1arkable, that the author of the }(oran should 
ha ve been unconsciously If'd to appropriate the lan- 
guage of this very prediction to hÍ1nself. h 0 Lord, 
thou hast given Ine a part of tht) kingdoln, and hast 
taught n1C the il1terpretation of dark sayi 19S." "'V p 
taught him the interpretation of dark sayings, but 
the greater part of then1 ln
n do not understand." 
"'fhis is a secret history ,,'hich \ve reveal unto thee, 
o .:\lohamIned." As the fabrif'ator, therefore, of the 
I\:oran, 'Iohanuned has hÍ111self confiruled his ("laim 
to the prophetic distinction of 

 understanding dark 
sentenees;" for it is thp declared ohject of thi
tended revelation to re\rive the traditions of ancient 
times concerning God and relig-ion; and it professes 
farther to unfold the history of futurity, dnd the be- 
crets of the invisible ,,'orld. 
Ver. 24. .fInd his power shall 
e mighty, but not 
by his o'wn pOU' r.-Of this language a t\\ of old in- 
terpretation Inay be suggested, either of ,vhich is 
satisfactory, though it be not easy to decide ,vhich 
of thelll is the true one. By" his po\ver being 
mig"hty, but not by his o,vn po\ver," Inay be meant, 
that the teTnporal power of 1\-lohalnmed and his suc- 
cessors ,vas to o,ve its greatness and perpetuity to 
his spiritual dominion; or, in other ,vords, that the 
efnplre ,vhich he founded ,vas to be upheld by the 
i'mposture ,vhich he established. To this purpose 
the follo,ving-passage from Demetrius Cantemir, the 

· Koran. ch. xii. 



historian of the Ottoman empire, will be found very 
striking. "The Turks," says he, " ascribe the for- 
tunate successes of the empire, not so much to hu- 
Inan prudence, policy, and valour, as that their first 
emperors waged ,var, not through alnbition and a 
desire of dominion, but through the zeal of propaga- 
ting the Moha'ln'lnedan religion; and by that means 
they procured the divine assistance to their under- 
takings." The temporal power of Mohammedanism, 
accordingly, has repeatedly risen and declined; the 
Mohammedan world has again and again changed 
masters, but its spiritual tyranny has subsisted in 
undiminished vigour; it has lived and reigned un- 
altered, through the whole of its period thus far ful- 
filled. It is mighty, therefore, by the power of the host 
given unto it. According to another interpretation, 
the passage .may be simply designed to teach, that 
the remarkable success Qf the Mohammedan power 
is to be referred directly to the special providence 
of God, that the results attained were so entirely to 
transcend all that could be anticipated from the ordi- 
nary operation of human causes, that the hand of 
God was to be clearly recognised in every stage of 
its progress. Viewed in this light, the language of 
the Most High respecting Nebuchadnezzar may 
afford a commentary of most striking pertinency upon 
this prediction: "0 Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, 
and the staff in their hand is mine indignation. I 
will send him against ån hypocritical nation, and 
against the people of my ,vrath will I give him a 
charge to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to 
tread them down like the lllire of the streets. How- 
beit, he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think 
so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off na- 
tions not a few. For he saith, by the strength of 
mine hand I have done it, and by my wisdom; for I 
am prudent. Shall the ax boast itself against him 
that beweth -therewith 1 or shall the saw magnify 
itself against him that shaketh it 1 as if the rod 



should shake itself against them that lift it up, or as 
if the staff should lift up itself as if it ,vere no ,vood.". 
./lnd he shall destroy 'It'onderfidly, and shall prosper 
and practise, and !hall des roy the nigh y and th 
holy people.-It should be borne in mind that the 
verses ,ve are no\v considering- contctin thp an- 
gel's interpretation of the syulbolic actions per- 
formed by the little hom in thp vision. Of these 
the principal \vas his rudely invading the emblematic 
"host," or the hierarchy, violently casting them to 
the ground, and stanlping upon theJn with his feet. 
The language before us is unquestionably exegeti- 
cal of this fignratiye scenf'1)"', and the phrasp
, " shall 
destroy ,vonderfully," and" shall destroy th(" mighty 
and the holy people," are equivalent to saying, he 
shall succeed to a :4urprising- degrce in causing mul- 
titudes to apostatize fronl the Christian profession. 
This ,vas to be done by sprrading thf' poi:son of a 
false religion. }'or the original ,,'ord rendered" de- 
stroy" is a term implying not merely physical de- 
struction, but noral corruption, or the vitiating in- 
fluence of false doctrines and principles upon hUlnan 
conduct. It is the term pmploycd in the following 
passages :-" .For all flesh had corn4ptecl his \vay 
upon the earth;" "Take ye therefore good heed 
unto yourselves, lest ye corrupt yourst'lves, and 
Jnake you a gra Vf1n ÏJnage, &(".;" "'rhey are cor- 
rupt; they have done abolninable ,vorks." In anu- 
sion to these expression q , it is said in the annuncia- 
tion of divine judgnlents in the ...\pocalypse, "Thy 
,vrath is COBle, that thou shouldst destroy then. that 
destroy the earth;" i. e. those that corrupt the earth. 
In affixing this sense to thp destruction to be achieved 
by the little horn, or the 
Iohammedan po\\;er, It is 
not necessary to 
xclude the idea of the bloodshed 
and desolation ,vhieh have Inarked the progress of 
the Saracen and 'furkish anns in planting and de- 

 Isaiah, ch, x. 5-15. 



fending their dominion. Yet we think the sense of 
a moral depravation, brought about by the introduc- 
tion of a spurious and pestilent faith, and accom- 
plishing a sad defection among the professors of the 
true religion, answers better to the nature of the 
sYlnbol employed, and is equally accordant with the 
truth of history. 
Ver. 25. And through his policy also he shall cause 
craft to prosper in his hand: and he shall 'lnagnify 
himself in his heart, and b'!j peace shall destroy 'lnany: 
he shall also stand up aga
nst the' Prince if princes.- 
The institution of the religion of the !{oran ,vith its 
" host," or orders of teachers, and its systeln of ,vor- 
ship, was l\iohammed's masterpiece of "policy." 
It was by this Ineans that his follo,vers supplanted 
the preachers of the Gospel, and converted to the 
faith multitudes of those over who In the temporal 
authority had been extended by the power of the 
sword. " Policy" here is probably to be underst.ood 
in the sense of unprincipled shre'wdness, the working 
of a keen but depraved intellect, laying its plans 
,vith a serpentine subtlety, and executing them with 
an entire recklessness of the moral character of the 
means employed. In this manner success has 
crowned the l\lohammedan po,ver; their vile arts, 
their" craft," their perfidy, have stangely prospered. 
No more striking characteristic of the founder or 
the followers of Islam could be designated. " In 
the exercise of political governU1ent," says Gibbon, 
" Mohammed ,vas compelled to abate of the stern 
Tigour of fanaticism, to comply in some measure 
with the prejudices and passions of his follo,vers, 
and to employ even the vices of lnankind as the in- 
strument of their salvation. The use of fraud and 
peifidy, of cruelty and injustice, ,va s often subser- 
vient to the propagation of the faith." "In the sup- 
port of truth, the arts of fraud and fiction may be 
deemed less criminal; and he would have started 
at the foulness of the means, had he not been satis- 



tied of the importance and ju'\ticc of the pnd." 1'he 
recent Travels in the East of :\Ir. 1\Iaddf'u, an English 
gcntl{'n1an, furnish HOIlIC very graphic. 8kC'tches of 
1\IohalTIlnedan character, ,,-hieh 111ay be adduced to 
fill up thp prophf\tic portraitnrp. ,,-c are no,v f'onsi- 
dering. "IJis (the 'rurk's) inherent hostility to 
Christianity is thp first principle of his 1a,\"; {1 ld the 
peifìdy it is .
1l1}posed to euJoin is the {noRt proluinent 
feature ill his c-haraptcr."" "'I'he lnost striking qua- 
lities of thC' 
losl('nl are his profound ignorance, his 
insuperable arrogance, his habitual indolence, and 
the pf'.rfid!/ ,vhich directs his poliey in tIll, divan, 
and regulates his f{'rocity in the fielò."t " .As to the 
out\vard ß1an, the 'f'urk is, physically speaking, the 
finpst animal, atld, indcprl, e"X('cls all Enropl'ans in 
bodily vigour as "rell as beauty. As to thcir uloral 
qualities, I found them charitable to the poor, attC'l1- 
tÏ\e to the siek, allrl kind to thcir d01nesticf:; but I 
also found thenl perfidz.ous to their fri
nds, treachp- 
rOllS to thpir encrnies, and thanld{'ss to thC'ir bC'ne- 
factors."t "I ne"er found a 'rurk ,vho kept his 
,vord ,vh()n it ,vas his interest to break it."
As to the expression," by peace he shall destroy 
many," it has been interpreted by SOlpe as hnpJying, 
that the kingdolTI reprcsrnted by the littlp horn 
should destroy many by \\7asting invaf:iollS ,vhile 
their victilTIS ,vere shuuhering in a state of JlcgJigent 
security; a peculiarity said to have been excnlplified 
in the ,vhole prObTfess of the Saracen anns. Such 
may have been the case; but ,,-e incline to attribute 
another inlport to the '\'ord
. Adhering to the sense 
before giyen to the \\'ord .. destroy," as ilTIplying the 
saIne as to corrupt, seduce, lead i'f1to d(>.çtrllctive error, 
,ve suppose the allusion to be to the fact, that thou- 
sands during the victorious progress of the l\Ioslem 
anTIS accepted of life, safety, and" peace," on con- 
dition of their en1bracing the foul imposture of the 
* :Madden's Travels, vol. i. p. 18. t lb. p. ].9. 
t lb. p. 29. 
 lb. p. 31. 



conquerors. Thus it ,vas that "by peace he de- 
stroyed many;" i. e. he corrupted them by the terms 
on which he granted peace.. 1t is notorious that 
these ,vere " death, tribute, or the Koran," and ,vhere 
the subject nations escaped the point of the s,vord, 
they ,vere destroyed by the corrupting and deadly 
influence of the superstition ,vhich they elnbraced. 
But he shall be broken without hand.-'rhat is to 
say, not by human hands, or by the instrumentality 
of man, as empires are usually overthro,vn; but this 
spiritual dominion is to meet its fate when the stone 
cut out "without hands" is dashed against the 
image, and reduces all the po,ver of despotism and 
delusion to the dust. Expositors of prophecy are 
many of them confident in the belief that the 1\10- 
hammedan imposture ,vill begin to be broken, with- 
out hand, at the time when the great antichristian 
confederacy of the Roman beast is destroyed; and 
at the epoch when the 1\1:illennium is on the point of 
commencing. At this period the Gospel ,vill begin 
to be succes8fully preached throughout the ,vhole 
,vorld; and the issue, it is supposed, ,vill be the uni- 
versal gathering of the Gentiles into the pale of the 
Christian Church. During this period, the 1\loham- 
medans will be converted to the true f,1Ïth; and 
"Then their conversion shall have bec01ne general, 
the spiritual kingdoln of the Eastern little horn ,vill, 
no doubt, be broken. But in that case, it ,viII plainly 
have been broken without hand; for it ,vill not have 
been broken by the s\vord of violence, in the hand 
of an earthly conqueror; hut by the invisible agency 
of the Holy Spirit, inclining the hearts of its long- 
deluded votaries to renounce their errors, and to 
embrace the faith of the true Prophet of God. 
Thus ,ve have seen, that the little horn of the 
symbolical he-goat answers in every Í1nportant par- 
ticular, however circunlstantial, ,vhich has hitherto 
been accomplisheò, to the successful ilnposture of 
Mohammed. 1'he result, therefore, of the ,vhole in- 



quiry Jnust be, that by the little horn, described in 
this chapter of Daniel, is synlbolized the spiritual 
king-dollI of 'Iohauunedanislll. 
Another parallel prophecy is no,v to be traced in 
the Apocalyp::se of John, ,vho hac; confirlned and 
illustrated the Jllost iInportallt predictions of Daniel. 

REV2LATION, CH. IX. 1-19. 
1. And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fiùl ftom heaven unto 
the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. 
2. And he openf'd the bottomle
 pit; and there aroso a smoke o:lt of 
the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air 
3. were d.arkeuecl by reason of t he smoke of the pit. And there came 
out of the fì!Hokc locu
ts upon the earth: Hurl unto thcm WßS given. 
4. powf'r,a-.; the Nrorpions of the earth havc power. And it \\8..., com- 
mdn{1pd them that they should not hurt the gra
s of the e.trth, 
neither any grcen thing, neither Rny tree; but only tho:ie men 
5. which have not the scal of God in their foreheads. And to them it 
was given that they should not kill them, but that they øhould be 
tormented five months: and their torment \\as as the torment of a 
6. .scorpion. ,\ hen he striketh a man. \nd in tho..,
 da} s 
hall men 
seek death, and ShHll not find it; and Rhall desire to die, and death 
7. shall flee from them. And the shapes of the locustli werc like unto 
horses prcpared unto battle; and on their hCH(L., were as it were 
8. crowns. like gold, anrl their t:"lces were as the faces of meh. And 
they harl hair a<; th.' hair of women, and their teeth were as the 
9. tpeth of lions. And they had hreastplatcs, as it were brea
of inn; and thc sound of their wings was as the 
ound of chariots 
JO. of Ihany horses, runnirlg to battle. And they had tails like unto scor- 
pion!iJ; and there were stings in their tails: and their power was 
11. to htirt men five month
. And they had a king over them. which 
if! the angel of the boUoml
ss pit; whose name, in the Hebrew 
tongue, is Abaddon; but ill tbe Greek tongue bath his name Apol- 
]2. l)"on. One '\\0 is pa
t; and behold therc came two more woos 
13. hereafter. And the sixth angel sounded, and I hcard a voice from 
H. thc four horns of thp gold,'u altar, which is before God; sayin
the angel, which had the trumpet, loose th
 four angels which 
15. are bound in the river Euphrates. And the four angels were 
loosed which werë prepared for an bour and a (lay, and a month 
16. Hud a year, for to slay the third part of men. And the number of 
the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand: 
17. and I heard the numbt:r of them. AntI thus I saw the horses in 
the vision, and them that sat on them, hav
ng breastplates of fire, 
and of jacinth, anð brimstone: and the heads of the horses were 
as the heads of lions; and out of their months is...ued fire, and 
18. smoke, and brimstone. Dy these three was the third part of men 
lulled; by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which 



19. issued out of their mouths. For their power is in their mouth, and 
in their tails: for their tnils were like unto serpents, and bad 
heads, am] with them they do hurt. 

" In the prediction of Daniel," observes Mr. Faber, 
" IVloha111nlcdanism alone is spoken of: its two prin- 
cipal supporters, the Saracens and the Turks, are not 
discriminated fr01n each other: a general history of 
the superstition fr0111 its COlnnlencement to its termi- 
nation is given, without descending to particularize 
the nations by which it should be successively pa- 
tronised. In the Revelation of John, this deficiency 
is supplied; and ,ve are furnished with two distinct 
and accurate paintings, both of the Saracenic locusts 
under their exterminating leader, and of the Eu- 
phratèan horseillen of the four Turkish Sultanies.'" 
These t\VO departn1ents of the prophecy we shall 
now endeavour to explain in their n1inute parti- 
Ver. 1. .!1nd I saw a star fall (Gr. "having 
fallen") f,!o'ln heaven unto the earth; and to him was 
given the key qf the bottolnless pit, and there arose a 
smoke out if the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace: 
and tb.e sun and the were darkened by reason of 
th.e smoke qf the pit.-Conlnlentators at the present 
-day are abnost universally agreed in regarding the 
fifth trumpet as symbolizing and predicting the ap- 
ance of the Arabian inlpostor, his spurious reli. 
gion, and his Saracen follo,vers. But, as it is by 
no 111eans evident, ho\v .l\'Iohammed hinlself can 
properly be. represented as "a star faJling from 
heaven," the usual syn1bol of an apostate Christian 
teacher, or of a nUID ber of theIn, ,ve apprehend the 
design of the Holy Spirit in this imagery to be, to 
teach us, that .!\i1ohamrnedanism is to be consz.dered as 
the fruit or product of a Christian heresy. The star 
had fallen before the time of the false prophet, in 
the person of Arius, and other gross heretics; and 
as the consequence of their apostacy from the truth, 
he providence of God so ordered it, that the deso. 



lating delusion of ì\IohalnlÐedanism should arise and 
overspread SOIlIC of the fairest portions of thc Church. 
This vic,v of the arch-ilnpo:sture of Is1aIuism has 
been takcn by son1C '"cry ablc ,vTiters of modern 
tilncs; particularly by 'Ir. \\llÍta
er in his" Origin 
of :\rianisn1." 'fhe grand heresies, therefore, of the 
Christian Church, previous to the timc. 2 of )fohdUl- 
Ined, seem to be here pcr:souified in the fallen star, 
and represented dS being in
trunlental in introducing 
this luastcr-plague of error and tiuperstition into the 
,vorld. 'rhe poetical luachincry of the vision is 
tsupposed to be taken frGln thp sacred oraclùar cav
of the anticllt Pagans, ,\"hich ,vere often thought to 
communicate ,\"ith the sea, or the great abyss, and 
,vhich ,rere 
pctially ,alued, ,,-hen (like that dt 
Dclphi) they elnitted an intoxicating vapour: it is 
used, therC'fore, ,vith singular propriety in foretelling 
the rise of a religious inlposture. fhere Dlay POd- 
sibly be an allusion also to the cave of IIera, ,\"hither 
the prophet ,\ as "ont to retire for the purpose of ex- 
cogitating his SystC1U, and fronl \vhich it really enla- 
nated. 'fhe opening of the bottolnless pit, there- 
fore, and the letting out the yapour and sllloke of the 
infernal regions, aptly represents the \\"icked and 
rliabolic{il systeln of religion, the dense and noxious 
fun1es of the corrupt theology ,vhich he broached, 
and by Ineans of ,vhich so large a portion of Chris- 
tcndoln ,vas finally obscured and involved in dark- 
ness. 11he preternatural darkening of the sun forc- 
sho,vs the eclipse of the tnle rpligion; and that of 
the air prefigures the uncontrolled dOll1ÏnioIl of the 
po,vers of darkness. A.s a striking coincidence "\\rith 
the signs hpre predicted, it is ,vorthy of note, that a 
ren1arkable COluet Ï1nlnediately preceded the birth 
Iohammed; and that an eclipse of the sun, of ex- 
traordinary degree and duration, attended the first 
announcelnent of his pretended Inission. 
I Ver.2. .!lnd there carne out of the pit locusts upon 
the earth.- .\rabia h
s long been noted for giving 



birth to prodigious swarms of locusts, ,vhich often 
overspread and lay waste the :p.eighbouring coun- 
tries; and it is remarkable, that in a genuine Arabian 
romance, the locust is introduced as the national em.. 
blem of the Ishmaelites. The symbol, therefore, of 
the. locusts issuing out of the smoke strikingly repre.. 
sents the armies of the Saracens, the martial fol.. 
lowers of the prophet, first engendered, as it were, 
amid the ftunes of his religion, and. then marching 
forth, at his con1mand, to conquer and to proselyte 
the world. The pages of history must be consulted 
to learn the devastations of those hosts of destruc- 
tive Saracens, which, under the guidance of l\loham- 
rued and his successors, alighted upon and wasted 
the .apocalyptic earth. Yet, notwithstanding the 
phantasl1l.s that came forth from the pit of the abyss 
bore a general reselnblance to locusts, they were 
marked by several peculiarities, by which they were 
more perfectly adapted to typify the people designed 
to be thus shado\ved out. 'I'hese ,ve shall consider 
as we proceed. 
Ver.4. .flnd it was comma.nded them that they 
should 'flot hurt the grass gf the ea.rth, neither any green 
thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have 
not the seal of God in their ftreheads.-By the com.. 
mand that they should 110t hurt the grass, nor the 
trees, but men only, it is evident that these were not 
natural, but syn1bolical locusts; and also that they 
were under providential control. The same thing 
appears from other attributes assigned them, which 
plainly belong to the objects s.igrzified, and not to the 
sign,. as the hun1an face, the wonlan's hair, the 
golden cro,vns, the iron breastplates. But it is very 
common in the syn1bolic diction of prophecy, to find 
the literal and the allegor.ical sense intern1ixed, and 
that even in the same passage. \Ve are thus fur- 
nished with a cle"\v to the real meaning of the" sym- 
bols. By the precept here given, the emblematic 
locusts were required to act i:l a manner perfectly 



ðissimilar to the ravages of natural locusts : and yet 
ho\v faithfully the cOl1l1lland ,vas obeyed, nlay be in- 
ferred froln the follo,\ring very rcmarkable injunction 
of the Caliph Abubeker to \'r e, upon setting out 
on the expedition against Syria, thcfirst undertaking 
of the Saracens in the ,vay of foreign conquest. It 
can scarcely be doubted, that these instructions have 
been preserved, under thp pro,ridence of God, for the 
express PUrpOb(\ of fun1ishing an illustration of this 
prophetic text. "Reluember," said _\bub kcr," that 
you are al,vays in the presence of God, on the verge 
of death, in the assurance of jU(lgulent, and the hope 
of paradise. 'Vhen you fight the battles of the 
Lord, acquit yourselves like Inen, ,vithout turning- 
your back,;; but let not your victory be staincd ,vith 
the blood of ".omen or children. TJestroy no palln- 
trees, nor burn any fields of corn. Cut ([own 110 
fruit-trees; ILOT do any mischÙf to cattle, only such as 
you kill to eat. 'Vhen you make any covenant, stand 
to it, and be as good as your ,\rord. As )' ou go on, 
you ,viII find SOIDP religious persons, ,vho Ii vc retired 
in monasterie
 and propose to theulselves to :5crve 
God that ,vay: let then1 alone, and neither kill them, 
nor destroy their monasteries. And you ,vill find 
I another sort of people, that belong to the synagogue 
of Satan, ,vho have shaven cro\vns: be sure you 
,cleave their skulls, and give thelTI no quàrter till they 
either turn 
[aholnet3ns, or pay tribute.". It has 
accordingly been noticed, that those parts of the 
Roman elupire ,vhich ,vere left untouched by these 
Saracen hordes, ,,,,ere those in ,vhich it appears fronl 
history the relnnant of the tnle church of God ,vas 
still found residing: they ".ere OlÙY to hurt the Inen 
,vho had not the Jnark of God on their foreheads. 
Ver. 5. And to theln it 'Was given that they should 
not kill them, but that they should be torlnented five 
month.s; and their tormcnt was as the torment if a 

* Ock:ey's History of the Saracens, vol. i. 




scorpion, when he striketh a man.-Mr. Gibbon's un- 
designed conl1nentaryon these words will show how 
the commission ,vas fulfilled. " The fair option of 
friendship or sublnission, a battle was proposed to the 
enemies of l\faholnet. If they professed the creed 
of Islam, they were adlnitted to all the temporal and 
spiritual benefits of his primitive disciples, and 
lnarched under the saIne banners, to extend the re- 
ligioi1 they had enlbraced. The clemency of the 
prophet was decided by his interests; yet he seldom 
trampled on a prostrate enelny, and he seemed to 
prolnise, that on the payment of a tribute, the least 
guilty of his unbelieving subjects 111Íght be indulged 
in their worship."-The period assigned for the 
po,ver of the locusts, in this prediction, is "five 
Inonths." Prophecy has its peculiar mode of com- 
puting time. A day for the n10st part stands for a 
year. Five months, therefore, of thirty days each, 
anlount, in the cOlnputation of prophecy, to one hun- 
dred and fifty years. As five literallnonths is the 
utn10st tenn of the duration of the natural plague of 
the locusts, so the prophetic five months accurately 
denote the period of the main conquests of the Sa- 
racen elnpire, cOlnputing fronl the appearance óf 
lVlohammed to the foundation of Bagdad. " Read," 
says Bishop N e,vton, "the history of the Saracens, 
and you will find, that their greatest exploits were 
performed, and their greatest conquests made, within 
the space of five prophetic months, or one hundred 
and fifty years,-bet,veen the year 612, when Ma- 
hOlnet opened the bottolnless pit, and began publicly 
to teach and propagate his ÏInposture; and the year 
762, when Al1uansor built Bagdad, and called it the 
city of peace." The cOlnparison of the locusts' tor- 
nlents to that of the scorpion ,vill be considered sub- 
Ver. 6. And in those days shall 'lnen seek death, and 
shall not find .it; and shall desire to die, but death shall 
fiee froll1 thern.- r rhi.3 prediction has usually been 



considered as a\\ full} e:\.pre
lo\ive of th(' hopele


rings and despair of Ea
tem Christendol11, under 
OIC la\vless illsUlt
, and opprC's
tenlatically practi;:)ed by thcir Sara .elllnastcr
. \Ve 
"ould not deny that this 111ay ha, e been alluded to; 
yet, as it ,vould seenl that lllCIl d }sirou:s of e
suffering by death, Inight casily, ill a thousand ,vay
have accolnplished their object, it lnay be Rug-g-ested, 
,,"hether the Saracens thelnsclves are not th p 'rt;ons 
here referred to, a
 coveting death in battle, froln a 
,.ie\\ to the honour, and the re\vards of such a de- 
cea.c;e. 'fhc follo,,"ing p

sòCYë frol11 the Koran, is 
,\ orthy of spt'(.ial noh' in tl11
 eonnexion. ""\tore- 
over, ) e did SOluctÏIne::, ,vish for death, before that ye 
nit""t it." On tht'se ,vord:s 
ale remilrk
, in a note, 
"that several of :\lohaUllllCd"s follo\ver'-, \v11o ,vere 
not present at Uedcr, \\"ished for an opportunity of 
obtaining-, in anoth(lf actioll, 11)(. like honour a
those had gained. ,vho ft
ll nlartyrs in that .vcnt." 
'rhe import of thc lanO"ua!.{c, therefore, may be, that 
God should gi" 0 to the 'Ioslclll ho
t8 such an uuin.. 
terrupted tide of conque
t5-, they should so uni- 
fornlly COlne off victorious in their engagements, 
and that ,vith such inconsiderable losses, that nUI11- 
bers, in the height of their enthusiasm, should pant 
in vain for the glorious privilege of dying in the 
field of battle. 
Ver. 7. JJ.nàthe shapes of the locusts were like unto 
horses prepared UßlO battle.-" Arabia," says Gibbon, 
" is, in the opinion of naturalists,the native country 
of the horse." The horsemanship of the Arabs has 
ever been an object of adn1iration. "The martial 
youth, under the banner of the Emir, is ever on 
horseback and in the field, to practise the exercise 
of the bo\v, tIle javelin, and the scimitar." In cor- 
respondence, therefore, ,vith the hieroglyphic of the 
prophet, the strength of the Saracens consisted very 

· Koran, ch. iiL 



much in their numerous cavalry, and the unrivalled 
speed of the Arabian coursers forms the 1110st strik- 
ing possib
e en1bleITI of the rapid career of the Sa- 
racen arn11es. . 
.f1nd o
 their heads 
'ere as it were crorøns like gold, 
and their faces were as the faces of 1nen.-" Make a 
point.," says a precept of Mohan11TIed, "of wearing 
turbans; because it is the \vay of angels." The tur- 
ban, accordingly, has ever been the distinctive head- 
dress of the .A..rabs, and their boast has been, that 
they \vore, as their COITIlnOn attire, those ornaments, 
,vhich alnong other people are the peculiar badges 
of royalty. The notice of the "faces of men" 
seelns to be intended merely to afford a clew to the 
meaning of the elnblem; to intimate, that not na- 
turallocusts, but hUlnan beings, were depicted under 
this symbol. 
Ver. 8. .f1nd they had hair, as the hair of women, 
and their teeth were as the teeth of lions.-The Arabs, 
as Pliny testifies, \vore their beards, or rather mus- 
tachios, as men, ,vhile their hair, like that ,of women, 
,vas flowing or plaited. The" teeth like those of 
lions," has reference to the weapons and imple- 
Inents of war; and the "breastplates of iron" to 
the armour Inade use of by the Saracen troops in 
their expeditions. The" sound of their ,vings as 
the sound of c
lariots of Inany horses running to 
battle," is but a part of the saIne expressive imagery ,vadike scenes and preparations. ' 
Ver. 10. .!lncl .they had tails like 'unto scorpions: 
and there were stings Út their tails. The interpreta- 
tion of the sYInbols of the Apocalypse lnust be 
sought for in the Old Testalnent. Froin the follow- 
ing ,vords of Isaiah (ch. ix. 14, 15) it appears that 
the tail of a beast denotes the false doptrines or the 
superstition which he Inaintains :-" Therefore the 
Lord \vill cut off fr0l11 Israel head and tail, branch 
and rush, in one day. The ancient and honourable, 
he is the head; and the prophet that teacheth lies, he 



,is thæ tail." The eß1blf'ITI, therefore, strikinglyrepre. 

rnts the infliction of spiritual "
ounds by the propd" 
gation of poisonous and deadly errors and here'Oies. 
And nothing is more evident fronl tIIC page of his- 
tory than that the 'loslcn1 follo,vers of 
have scattered, like scorpions, the vcnOlU of their 
doctrines behind thCTll; and ,vhf't1H'T conquering- or 
conquered, ha,re succeeded in pabuing a new creed 
upon those ".ith ".hom they have had to do. By 
this sYlubol, then, ,ve arc plainly taught, that the 
plague of the allegorical locusts consisted not only 
in the ravag-f'S of "
ar, but in the successful propacra- 
tiOll of a fallie religion, of ,,"hich the doetrines 
he as deletC'rious in a spiritual point of vie"r, as the 
sting of a scorpion ill a natural. In like m31l!lCr, 
,vhen it is said" (ch. xii. 3, 4) of the" 1:,rreat red dragon 
having seven head
 and ten horns, th
t his tail dre,v 
the third part of the stars of heaven, and did Cast 
them to the earth," the explication is, that the \nti- 
cnristian po" er shaòo,çed out hy thi!o, fonnidable 
nlonster should be permitted to instil the nlost per.. 
nicious errors into the Jninds of the professed minis.. 
ters of the truth, and thus bring about their entire 
defection fronl Christianity. 
Vcr. 11. And they had a king over the.m, wll' is 
the angel of the bottondfsS IJit, 1A.:hose nalne 'in the 
Hebrew tong'lie is J1baddon, but 1.n the Greek tongue 
hath his nalne JJpollyone-Both these tprms signify 
destroyer. Since the locusts are at onee secular 
conquerors and the propagators of a false religion, 
their king must stand to then1 in the double relation 
of a temporal and spiritual head. Such acpording-Iy 
,vere l\[ohamllled and the Caliphs his SUCCeS80l"S, ,vho 
I must be vie""ed as jointly constituting the locust.. 
king Abaddon; for in the usual language of pro.. 
phecy, a king denotes, not any single indi\ridual, but 
a dynasty or kingdoln. The chipf of the locusts, 
,vhcn they first issued from the pit of the abyss, ,vas 
1\10hammed him
elf; but during the allotted period 
of the \VO ,,,hie h they occasioned, the reigning- de.. 



stroyer was, of course, the reigning Caliph. If, 
therefore, we were to suppose the genÚts of J'rIoham- 
medanism under the Caliphs to be personified, and 
this symbolical personage to be designated by the 
Inost appropriate title, Abaddon, the destroyer, would 
be the appellation. . 
As the portion of the prophecy thus far considered 
has reference to the origin of Mohammed's impos- 
ture, and to the rise, progress, and conquests of the 
Saracens, its earliest abettors and propagators, so the 
remaining part announces the commencement and 
career of the Turkish power, the principal of its later 
Ver.13. And the s'ixth angel sounded, and [heard a 
voicefro'ln the four horns qfthe golden .altar, which is, 
before God, saying to th
xthangel had the trU'ln- 
pet, Loose the four angels which are bound in (rather at,. 
by, in the vicinity of) the great river Euphrates, and 
the four angels were loosed.- I t is impossible, from the 
train of events, and from the quarter of the world in 
which ,ve are directed to look for the irruption of 
these prodigious multitudes of horsemen, to mistake' 
to \vhom the prophecy refers. 'fhe four angels ,vho 
are described as bound in the regions bordering on 
the river Euphrates, not Ù
 the river itself, are the 
four contemporary sultanies or dynasties, into ,vhich 
the empire of the Seljukian Turks was dividéd 
towards the close of the eleventh century: PERSIA, 
se sultanies, from 
different causes, were long restrained from extend. 
ing their conquests beyond \vhat may be geo- 
graphically termed the Euphratèan regions, but to- 
wards the close of the thirteenth century, the four 
angels on the ri ver Euphrates ,vere loosed in the 
persons of their existing representatives, the united 
Ottoman and Seljukian Turks. The historian of the 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire must of ne- 
cessity be the guide to any English commentator on 
this part of the prophetic history. . The following is 
his testimony as to the immense number of the 



Turkish cavalry. " As the subject nations marched 
under the standard of the 'furks their cavalry, both 
men and horses, were proudly computed by millions." 
" On this occasion, the 11lyriads oj the Turkish horse 
overspread a frontier of six hundred nÜles, froll1 
 to Erzeroum." 
Ver. 17. And thus I sau
 the horses in the vision, and 
those that sat on thellt, havin
 brcastplatesoffire and of 
jacinth, and brÙnstolle.-'rhc
e prophetic character- 
IsticS of the Euphratèan "rarriors accord in the Ul0St 
perfect manner ,vith the description ,vhich history 
gives of the 'rurks. 'l'hey brought in11nen
e annies 
into the field, chiefly composed of horse, and froln 
their first appearance on the great political :;tage of na- 
tions thcir costume has been peculiarly distinguished 
by the colour
 of t5carlet blue, and yello\v, ,vhieh 
are here dcnoted by the tenns " fire," " jacinth," and 
" brinlstone." Rycaut's" Present State of the Otto- 
nlaIl Elupire," publi
hed to\vards the close of the 
seventeenth century, ,viU satisfy the reader on this 
And t 
e heads of the horses were as the- heads 0[ 
lions, and out of their 11l0uths issued fire and 

and brÏ1nstone. 'Ve have here a sYlnbol,vhich is 
not else\vhere to be lnet ,vith in the Scriptures. Ffhe 
prophetic hor
cs are fepre:scnted as von1iting out of 
their 1110uths "fire, and sllloke, and brÏ1nstone," by 
"\vhich it is added, " the third part of men ,vas killed.;' 
l\Iede, Ne,vton, Faber, and Dlost other elnincnt ex- 
positors of the Revelation, agree in supposing that 
the llashps of fire attended by sn10ke and brinlstone, 
,vhich seelned to proceed fronl the Inouths of the 
horses, ,vere in reality the flashes of artillery. 'rhe 
Turks \vere alnong the first ,vIlo turned to account 
the European invention of gunpo,vder in carrying 
on their ,vaTS. Cannon, the Inost deadly engine of 
lnodern ,varfare, ,v'ere elnployed by !\lohammed II. 
in his ,vars against the Greek en1pire; and it is said 
that he \vas indebted to hi
 heavy ordnance for the 





reduction of Constantinople. The prophet, therefore, 
is to be considered as depicting the visionary scene of 
eld of battle, in ,vhich t}le cavalry and artillery 
are so Iningled together, that while flashes of fire and 
dpnse clouds of smoke issued frem the cannon, the 
horses' heads alone \vollld be dimly discerned through 
the sulphureous 111ist, and ,vould seem to the eye of 
the spectator to belch forth the smoky flames fronI 
their own 1110uths. As the design of this striking 
ÏInagery is to describe the appearances rather than 
the reality of things, the prophet employs an expres- 
sion,'*' " in the vision," or rather " in vision," i. e. ap- 
parently, as it see/ned, ,vhich evidently conveys the 
idea that the phantasln of a battle scene ,vas pre- 
sented to the imagination. "\tVe may no,v see ho,v 
far history confinns this interpretation. " Alllong 
the implelnents of destruction," says Mr. Gibbon, 
"he (Moharnmed II.) studied ,vith peculiar care the 
recent and tremendous discovery of the Latins; and 
his artillery surpassed ,vhatever had yet appeared in 
the world." "The Ottoman artillery thundered on 
ides, and the camp and city, the Greeks and 
Turks, were 'involved 'i"n a cloud of srnoke 'v hich 
could only be dispelled by the final deliverance or 
destruction of the Roman ellJpirë." " The great can- 
non of Mohammed has been separately an important 
and visible object in the history of the tÙnes. But 
that enormous engine, ,vhich required, it is said, 
seventy yoke of oxen and t,vo thousand men to 
dra,v it, ,vas flanked by t\VO fello\vs ahnost of equal 
magnitude: the long order of Turkish artillery ,vas 
pointed against the wall; fourteen batteries thun- 
dered at once on the lll0St accessible p]aces; and of 
one of these it is alnbiguouslyexpressed, that it ,vas 
mounted with a hundred and thirty guns, or that it 
discharged a hundred and thirty bullets." 
V ere ID. For their power is in. their '/nouth, and in 

-to 'Ev bpàUE:t. 



their tails: for tll ir tails 'Wcre like un 0 serpents, 
and had hcads, alHl with thc"I, thcy do hurt.- 'I'ho 
enlbleluatic iIllport of the tail of a hea
t '\.e have 
already considered. I'he Ïlllf.lCTCry in the present 

ynlbol is slightly difll 1 rent fruIIl that 'of the 
IOe-lIsts, ,vhich had the tails of scorpions; but the Ï1n- 
port is thp same. IIcre the tails of the hor
c8 ter- 
Ininatf'd in a '\ 'rpcnt's head; and it i:s not a little 
reinarkablc, that the 'I'l1rks have been ill the habit, 
fro1l1 the earliest periulls of their history, of tying- a 
knot in the cÀtren1Îty of the long llo\\.ing tails of 
their horse
, ,vhen preparing for ,var; so that tht1ir 
re'\clublance to serpents ,vith s\velling heaus Blust 
have been singularly striking. Striking- too i8 the 
faet, that so slight a cireUlIlstance should have been 
adverted to by the hi
torian so often quoted, ,rho 
"hought as little of being an organ to illustrate the 
predictions of 
cripture, as the 'rurks thenlselves 
did of being the agents to fulfil them. Speaking of 
,Alp Arslan, the first Turkish invader of the Honuul 
elnpire, he says," \Vith his o,vn hanùs he tied 'lIp 
his horse's tail, and declared that if he ,vere vau- 
quished, that spot should be the place of his burial." 
Ffhe scope of the hieroglyphi. here employed is to 
predict the propagation of a deadly imposture by the 
instruluelltality of the saIne ,varlike po\\rer "rhich 
,;;;hould achieve such prodigious conquests. The 
event has corresponded ,vith the prophecy. Like 
the Saracens of the tirst \\.0, the 1.'urks '\"ere not 
I1lerely secular conquerors. They ,vere anÏ1nated 
\vith all the ,,'ild fallaticisUl of a false religion; they 
professed and propagated the same theological sys- 
tenl as their Arabian predece:ssors; they inj ured by 
their doctrines no less than by their conq nests; and 
,vherever they established their dominion, the Koran 
tritullphed over the Gospel. Thus '\Tites ':Ir. Gib- 
bon: "The ,vhole body of the nation elnbraced the 
religion of ::\lohammed." "T,venty-five years after 
the death of Basil, his successors ,vere suddenly 



assaulted by an unknown race of barbarians, ,vho 
united the Scythian 'Valour ,vith the fanaticism of 
new con'Verts." 
Sufficient proof has now been afforded, if we mis- 
take not, that the appearance of the Arabian pro- 
phet in the world, and the rise, progress, and results 
of his imposture, are clearly foretold in the Sacred 
volume. Indeed, it ,vould not be easy to specify 
any admitted subject of prophecy, upon which his- 
tory and Providence have thro\vn a stronger or 
clearer light, .than that which we have considered in 
the preceding pages. Interpreters have been justly 
struck at the surprising exactness of the delinea- 
tions, and their perfect accordance ,vith the details 
of history. "The prophetic truths," says Dr. Zouch, 
" comprised in the ninth chapter of the Apocalypse are, 
of themselves, sufficient to stamp the 111ark of divinity 
upon that book. When I compare them with the page 
of history, I am fined \vith amazenlent. The Saracens, 
a people which did not exist in the time of John, and 
the Turks, a nation then utterly unkno,vn, are there 
described in language the most appropriate and dis- 
tinct." If then the considerations commonly ad- 
duced to account for the rise, progress, and reign of 
Mohammedanislll appear to be inadequate,-if the 
human causes usually quoted to explain the asto- 
nishing success of Mohammedan imposture still seem 
to us to leave many of the phenomena inexplicable, 
and the greatest revolution in the world connected 
,vith the history of the Church stands forth an un- 
solved problem,-why should we hesitate to ascribe 
it directly to the determinate ,vill and counsel of the 
Most High, and thus find a c1ew to all the myste- 
ries connected with it 1 Why should we be anxious 
to escape the recognition of a Divine interference in 
the riRe of this arch-heresy 1 If we have been cor- 
rect in our interpretation of the preceding predic- 
tions of Daniel and John, the Mohammedan delusion 
is as real and as prominent a subject of prophecy as 



any in the "'hole cOJupass of the Dible. No,v, to 
insist upon lhe operation of Increly hUlllaIl causes 
III the production of an eycnt ,vhich is truly a sub- 
ject of prophecy, is in fa('t to take the govenUllcnt 
of tllt
 ,\'orld out of the hands of God. _\nd this 
principle pushed to the extrelnp " ill inevitably lo\\'cr 
and irnpugn the sure" orù of prophecy; for it nlakes 
(;od the predicter of events over ,,'hich, at the 
tÌIne, he has no special buperintendenc(' or control. 
Snch a prInciple canllot stand the least exalniuatiol1. 
\Yhcn Vaniel foret
ls the fortunes of the four g-reat 
empires; or ,,'hen I
aiah speaks of Cyrus by nallle, 
a:s one \\ ho 
hould ac'colllplish certain great pur- 
pose's of the 1 nfillitP 1\Iind is it to he 8uppo
ed, that 
the events prcdi
ted "'ere to happen e:xelusiye of 
Providential agency1 ..\s ea
ily and d
 justly then 
may "'e acknü\vledge a sp 
cÍéù pre-ordainIl1ent in 
the case of 
Iohamnled, ,,,"hose 
till lnore fonnidabl
donlinion and Inore lasting and more fatal agency 
in the affairs of Il1en, are equally the thpme ûf Ull- 
questionable predictions. f\ 0 admi
siun of this na- 
tnre militates ,,'ith the free agPHcy of Blan. or at aU 
cts the Inoral character of his action
. The 
mere fact that an e\"ent i
 forekno\vn or foretold by 
the Deity, neithf'f takes <.nray nor \veakens the ac- 
countability of the agf'nts concerned. Of this, the 
,vhole Scripture is full of proof:s. But the reflecting 
reader "'ill desire no farther confinl1ation of so plain 
a position. 




[ B ] 


CAABA is the name given to a very ancient temple, 
in the city of Mecca, the origin of which is lost in 
the darkness of remote ages. Centuries before 
Mohammed was born, and while the Arabs were yet 
pagans, this building was held to possess a peculiar 
sanctity: pilgrimages were made to it from distant 
regions; and that tribe or family ,vas accounted the 
most honourable, who were the keepers of its keys. 
It is an oblong, massive structure, built of large 
blocks of different sized stones, joined rudely to- 
gether, and is about eighteen paces in length, four- 
teen in breadth, and from thirty-five to forty feet in 
height. It has but one door, on the north side, seven 
feet above the ground, wholly plated \vith silver, 
and elnbellished with gilt ornaments. From the 
door's being placed, not in the centre, but near to one 
corner of the building, it appears not to have been 
originally designed for a sacred use; but at what 
time, or for what reasons, it became thus appro- 
priated, it is not possible now to determine. Near 
the door, in the angle of the wall of the north-east 
corner of the Caaba, about seven spans fronl the 
ground, is the celebrated "black stone," so de- 
voutly kissed by every pilgrim visiting the sacred 
city. It is of an oval shape, about seven inches in 
diameter, composed of about seven slnall stones, of 
different sizes and shapes, well joined together with 
cement, and perfectly smooth; appearing as if the 
original stone had been broken into many pieces by 
a violent blow, and then united again, which indeed 
is reported to have been the fact. A border of some 
kind of cerllent, rising a little above the surface of 



 it, and hoth this and the stone 
are en .ircled b) a 
il vcr band. 
According- to the fabulous l{\gends of the ::\Iussul. 
, the "bla(.k stune" ,vas brought do,vn from 
heaven by Gabriel, at the creation of the ,,"orld; 
and ,\ (IS then of 
 pure ,vhit
, but htlS (.ontracted its 
present sable hue fro III the guilt of the siub COIU- 
n1Ïtted by the ::,on
 of Illen. If a conjecture, ho,v- 
ever, Iuay be hazarded, ,ve should 110t hesitate to 
refer its origin to that peculiar trait in the eharacter 
of the Ishnlaplites, ".hich has ever led thPJn to iIni- 
tate the Israelites. Scarcely a feature in the reli- 
gious institution
, usages, or traditions of the Jt..""s, 
but has its spuriou::; .áuntcrpart in those of the seed 
of IIaO"ar. Jacob's pillar of stone, at Dethel, "ould 
of course bflcon1e celebrated 
llIlong his des("cndants. 
In like lnanner, frolIl causes no,," unkno""I1, "'C may 
imagine this stone tu have recl'i\ ed a 
iJllÌlar salletity 
anlong the Arabs. 1'his is rendered luore probable 
frOll1 the circumstanre, that one of the nalTIPS given 
to the Caaba, in the Arabi(. hU1guage, is Beit-.llllah, 
house of God; a ,vord of the f'ame Ï1nport and simi- 
lar sound ,\yith Bcth-el, froln ,vhich the Greek term 
BaiLulia "yas frequently applied to sacred stones or 
memorial-pillars, like that of Jacob. 
The double roof of the Caaba is supported ,vithin 
hy three octangular pillars of aloes-,vood, behveen 
,vhich, on a bar of iron, hang a nuinber of silver 
lalnps. The four sides ,vithou1 are covered ,vith a 
rich black silk stuff hanging do,vn to the ground, 
and encircled near the top ,vith an embroidered band 
of gold, ,vhich compasses the ,vhole building. This 
covering, ,vhich is rene"Ytd e\'ery year, ,vas for- 
merly supplied by the Caliphs, after,vard by the 
Sultans of Egypt; but is nO"\v sent from Cairo, at the 
expense of the Grand Seignior, at the time of the 
Hadj, ,vhen the old one is cut into small pieces and 
sold to the pilgrims for nearly as much money as 
the ne,v one cost'). This curtain or veil, called 



Kesoua, is blazoned all over with the ,vords, "There 
is no God, but God," &c. in gold letters of great 
size; and such a sacredness attaches to it, that the 
camel which transports it to Mecca is ever after ex- 
enlpted from labour. This circumstance of the 
Caaba being covered in the manner described sug- 
gests the probability, that the structure ,vas intended 
as a rude inlitation of the Jewish Tabernacle, which 
,vas also enveloped in embroidered curtains without, 
while within ,vas a golden candlestick, with seven 
branches, kept constantly burning. 
The Caaba, at a slight distance, is surrounded 
with a circular enclosure of thirty-two slender gilt 
pillars, between every t,vo of ,vhich are suspended 
seven lanlps, upon snlall bars of silver connecting 
the pillars to\varda the top. These lamps are always 
lighted after sunset. This sacred paling relninds 
us again of the 'fabernacle; the .court of ,vhich, 
though of an oblong instead of a circular form, \vas 
constructed of pillars, anú hung with curtains, with 
only a single place of entrance. Within this en- 
closure of the Caaba, and ahnost contiguous to its 
base, lies the "\vhite stone," said to be the sepul- 
chre of I 
hmael, ,vhich receivps the rain-water fall- 
ing off the flat roof of. the edifice through a spout, 
fonnerly of wood, but no\v of gold. According to 
the account of Burckhardt, the effect of the ,vhole 
scene, the mys.terious drapery, the profusion of gold 
and silver, the blaze ,of lalllps, and the kneeling mul- 
titudes, surpasses any thing the imagination could 
have pictured. 
At a slnall distance from the Caaba, on the east 
side, is the station or place of Abraham, whom the 
Arabs affiml to have been the builder of the temple, 
where there is another stone much respected by the 
1\'1oslellls, as they pretend that the patriarch stood 
upon it ,vhile en'lployed about the building, and pro- 
fess to sho,v the prints of his footsteps to this day. 
Just without the cireular court, on its south, north, 



and ,vest sides, are thr(" huildings dp
igned as ora- 
I tories, or places of prayer, "here the pilgrim "'or- 
ðhippcrs perfunn their d '\'otion
. ßpsidt's 1 hpse 
there are seycral sluaU ùuihlings near to the lUain 
strueture, in one of ,,"hich is the fatuous \\'ell of 
Zen1zenl, said by the 'lus::;lwllans to be th" very 
sprinO' ,vhieh the angel dis 'overed to ] lagar in the 
\\rilderness, and ,\ ho
e ,vaters of courSt a poss('
s th 
IßOst nlÍraculous virtues. 'rhey cure all diseases, 
both of hody and :--pirit, and supply the ,vholc to\\.11 
. for drinking and oblation. It i
 said to be the only 
Rv,reet ,vatt'r in the ,,"hole van y; but Pitts, an Eng-- 
li'ih traveller, found it br;l('ki
h, and says, the pil- 
. griJI1s drink it so iuorùinately, that' they are not. 
only mu('h purged, hut their flesh break
 out àll in 
pinlples; and thi
 they called the purging of their 
, spiritual con'uption." They not only drink, bu 
have buckct
 of "atcr puured ovcr then}, and then 
.. think their sins are ,vashed into the "'ell. One of 
the miracle
 of 1[ec
a i
, that the ,vater of thi
. never dinlÍuishes; but this is not surprising to the 
true beli
vers, ,vho regard it as having been miracu- 
. Jously created to save the infant I
}l1nael \\rhen dying 
. of thirst in the ,,"ilderness. Burckhardt, ho,vever, 
· explains it ,vithout a miracle, by supposing that the 
,vater flo,vs through the bottoln, being supplied by a 
subterraneous rivulet. The ""ater, he says, is per- 
fectly s,,"eet, but heavy to the taste, slightly tepid, 
. and SOlnetÏInes in its colour resembles milk. The 
pilgrims frequently destroy the ropes, buckets, and 
other appendages of the ,veIl in their eagerness to 
. quaff its holy "rater. 
Surrounding all the ohjects IlO'V described, ,vhich 
occupy the centre of an open space, is the square 
colonnade or grand piazza, of a quadruple 
ro,v of columns on one side, and a triple ro\v on 
the other three sides, united by pointed or Gothic 
arches, every four of which support a dome, plas- 
tered whIte-the number of these domes amo1Ulting 



to one hundred and fifty-two, and- the pillars to four 
hundred and forty-eight. From the arches of these 
colonnades are suspended lamps, SOllle of which are 
lighted every night, and the whole of them during 
the nights of the Ramadan. The colulnns are up- 
,vards of t\venty feet high, and some\vhat lnore than 
a foot and a half in dialneter; some are of a reddish- 
gray granite, some of red porphyry, and others of 
,vhÜe Inarble. No two capitals or bases are exactly 
alike; ill some cases, by the ignorance of the work- 
Inen, the fonner have been placed upside do,vn on 
the shafts. The arches and some parts of the walls 
are gaudily painted in stripes of yellow, red, and 
blue, which, as \\Te have already seen, are colours 
- peculiar to Mohalninedanisill. At each of the four 
comers of this imlnense quadrangular court, tower- 
ing above the pillared dOines, rises a lofty minaret, 
SUffilounted with a gilded crescent, the invariable 
accompaniment of the Mosleln temple. 
"The high antiquity of the Caaba," says Mr. 
Forster,'*' "is undisputed. The permanent character 
of its rites is certified by our knowledge of the ad- 
herence of the Arabs, in every age, to their ancient 
custolns. But, fr0111 the uniform consent of Maho- 
111etan writers, it farther appears that the statues of 
Abraham and Ishlnael, ,vhich fron1 remote antiquity 
nad held a conspicuous place in the Caaba, and con- 
stituted the prineipal object of its idol ,vorship, re- 
mained to the time of l\Iaholnet, and ,vere there 
found by the IVIussuhnans after the capture of l\iecca. 
l\lahomet, Abulfeda tells us, when he took Mecca 
in the eighth year of the J-T ejira, found and destroyed 
in the Caaba, on his entering the telnple, the image 
of Abraham holding in his hand seven arrows with- 
out heads or feathers, sueh as the Arabs use in divi- 
nation, and surrounded with a great number of 
angels and prophets, as inferior deities, alnong 

* Mahornetani
m Unveiled, vol. ii. p.404. 




· ,,.l101n, as 
l Janabi and other \\'riters aù 1, \vas I
mael \\"ith ùivining arro\\"s al
o in his hand. 
"V ariou
 e-xternal sig-n
, b -.fl)k.ening- its patriarchal 
. origin, luay be tra 0 'd in the _'\ntt.(4)lahonl'tan 
. '\P('rship of the Caaba. \mong tllt
f5C 011(' (.U...;tOUl i
suffi(Oicntly relnarkable to elailll dj
tin('t notice in 
. thi
 place, inaslnueh as it has he.n tlllud(>d to ([JHI 
l"pnsurpd in tht' ],-orall. '}'hf> r:1gan rabs \\"er" 
U"t 'd to CODlpass the -'aaha naked, UP .au::> '.('lothe.., 
they sailI, \\r('rc the sign
 uf thplr t.lisoht'diel}('(' to 
(;0(1. 'fhe (.elcbrated black stOUt) of the Vaab<' also, 
. the prilnitive source and ohjcct of 
\rahian idolatl1, 

trungly indi(.at
s thf> origin to ,\.hich it ha.."'\ b(' n 
unifonuly referred. 'J'he Arabs attrihut{' it 
 inh 0- 
dUCtiOll into the temple of 'fe("t"a to thp illllllcdiate 
postrrityof Ishnlacl. ï'he 1 .ulia.. kind of sup 'r
tion is just ,vhat luight bc pxpe(.tcd to dri
(' frol)} the 
e of an early patriarchal cu'Stoln-that of sett in
up 8t011('S on particular 
pot.;) in honour of Hit") true 
God. "T}Üle th(> connc>..ion is farther Blade out bv 
the exact corre8pondence in this particular b :>>t\\ ceil 
the idolatry of the ancIent Israelitp::J and that of tIle 
[ahomctan .Arabians, their identity rnight 
be largely sho,vn frolll the Old '"festanlcnt; but a 
passage fro III the prophp
y of l
aiah \\"ill 8ulIiee. 
fhe prophet thus indignantly reproves the Je,,"s for 
their idolatry :-' A.lliong- the SlMoth stout's of the 
. stream is thy portion: they, they are thy lot: e\rcn 
to the In thou hast poured a drink offering, thou hast 
offered a Ineat offering.'" 

I:'i conncxion ,vith the preceding account of the 
. Caaba, the place of the 'loslem solemnities, the 
reader may be interested by the follo,ving ani. 
, ßlated sketch of the pilgrimage to :\lecca, f1 om the 

.. Koran) ch. vii. 



Review (in the London Quarterly) of Burckhardt's 
Travels in Arabia. . 
" At a certain distance from the Holy City, all pil- 
grims are required to strip themselves naked, thro\v 
away their garments, and put on the ihram, or ehram, 
two pieces of linen or cotton cloth, generally \vhite, 
one of then1 wrapped round the loins, the other 
thrown loosely over the neck and shoulders, while 
the head remains ,vholly uncovered. Burckhardt 
at once complied with this custom, \vhich has occa- 
sioned the death of Inany; for when the pilgrimage 
happens in winter, the assulnption of the ihram is 
extremely prejudicial to the Inost robust constitu- 
tioll,-more especially to that of the northern Mus- 
sulmans, who have been accustoll1ed to thick woollen 
clothes; , yet,' says Burckhardt, 'the religious 
zeal of some who visit the Hedjaz is so ardent, that 
if they arrive even several months. previous to the 
Hadj, they vo,v, on taking the ihram, not to thro\v it 
off till after the completion of their pilgrilnage to 
Arafat.' It is said
 that Haroun Al Raschid and his 
wife Zobeyda once peiformed the pilgrimage on 
foot from Bagdad to Mekka, clothed only \vith the 
ihram; but indulged in the luxury of walking on 
splendid carpets the \vhole ,yay. 
" The ancient Arabs, who reckoned time by lunar 
months, and intercalated a month every three years, 
had the pilgrimage fixed to a cert.ain season, for the 
Hadj is not a Musslùman invention; but ,vhen Ma- 
homet ordained that the same pilgrimage should be 
continued, in honour .of the living God, which, for 
ages before him, had been, in forgetfulness of the 
original patriarchal faith of the race, performed in 
honom of senseless idols, he prescribed the cere- 
mony to a particular lunar month; and as the 
modern Arabs do not intercalate, its periodical re- 
turns became irregular, and in thirty-three years 
shifted through all the months of the year, from the 
height of sunlmer to the de
th of willtex.. 



"On entcrin
 'Iekl\:a, the tptnple or mosque Inust 
be inlnleùiat >Iy visit(>ù" \vht't.hcr the 
trang-cr be' }Jil- 
grinl or not. 'fhe prescrihed ("crcJ11onics (lrc, first, 
to repeat certain praYe'r
, in ùitTeren parts uf th(' 
tClnple; then to begin th ' tO
'-'(lf, or ,\ralk rowld the. 
(>, PH til11(,;"\, ki

 tht' bla ''k 
tonc at each 
cireuit; then to proe(' >ù tu the ,,-ell of '/ enlZ '111, 
and drink as rauch ,,"att.'r as they ,,"ish or 'an get. 
'rhe second .erclnony \vhi("h the piIg-rilu has to per- 
fornl is, to procc('d to t he hill of Szafa, anù thpre rc- 
peat {"(Irtain pf('
("ribed pray<,rs before IIp srts out 
on the holy,,"alk, or say, \vhich is along a h'ycl bPOt, 
ix hundred pacps in It"ngth, tenninatiug- at a 
stone platfonn, calleù 
Ieroua. 'fhi:-3 ,valk, \vhich 
in ccrt'lin pla("cs IlUtst bC' a rnn, is to he repeated 
seven tÍ1nes, the pilgrillls rc(.iting prayers uUÎnter- 
ruptpdly, ,,,,ith a loud voice th(> ,,-hole tinle. rhe 
thirù Cerel110ny is that of sha"in
 the head anrl ,,"alk- 
 to the DnIra, about one hour and it half fronl 

[t'kka, chanting pious ('jaculatioI1
 all thp ,vay. 
'rhe t\VO furnlcr (.crenlonies Inust, aftcr this, be 
again repeated. 'l'he \\"'alk round the ]\:aaba seven 
titHeS, Jl1ay be rC'ppatc(} as oft as the pilgrim think
fit, and the Blore frequently the 1110rc lneritorious. 
I "About 
cv('nty thou;;:?nd persons 
elnblcd at 
I l\Ickka, ,,,hen llurckhardt Inade his pilgrimage, and 
sublnitted to the perfonuancc of these cC'remonies. 
'J'his is the least number ,vhich the J.\lussuhl1allS told 
_\li lley there lllust l1f'cessarily be assembled at every 
pilgrilnagc, on 'Iount Arafat; and that in case any 
deficicncy should 0(' .ur, angels are scut do\vn from 
hpavcn to c()lnpletc thC' Htunber. Pitts says pre- 
cisely the sarne thing. \Vhell \.Ii Bey \Vput through 
this part of the cerelilonr, he tells ns, an assernblage 
of cighty thousaud 1nen, t\VO thousand 'VOlnen, and 
OIlt") thousand little children, ,,,ith sixty or seventy 
thousand camels, asses, and horses, marched through 
the narro,v vallcy leading' frol11 Arafat, in a cloud of 
dust, carrying a forc::;t of lances, guns, s,vivels, &c. 



and yet 110 accident occurred that he kne\v of, ex. 
cept to hÜnself,-he received, it seenlS, a couple of 
wounds in his leg. One ,vould have thought that 
Burckhardt's sevent.y thousand ,vas a prodigious 
number; yet he tells us, that t,vo only of the five or 
six regular caravans Inade their appearance this 
year,-the Syrian and the Egyptian. About four 
thousand pilgTims from Turkey came by sea; and 
perhaps half as n1any frol11 other distant quarters of 
the l\lahommedan ,vorld. The Syrian ,vas al,vays 
considered the n10st numerous. I t is stated, that 
,vhen the n10ther of l\lotessem b'Illah, the last of the 
Abbassides, performed the pilgriInage in the year of 
the Hejira 631, her caravan ,vas cOlnposed of one 
hundred and t,venty thousand camels-that in 181,1 
consisted of not more than four or five thousand per- 
sons, and fifteen thousand caluels. Barthelna states 
the Cairo caravan, when he ,vas at l\1ekka, to have 
amounted to sixty-four thousand camels ;-in 1814 
the same caravan consisted mostly of l\laholnet Ali's 
troops, ,vith very fe,v pilgrims. But Burckhardt says., 
that in 1816, a single grandee of Cairo joined the 
Hadj ,vith one hundred and ten camels, for the trans- 
port of his bagg'age and retinue, , travelling 
expenses alone, he supposes, could not have been 
Jess than ten thousand pounds. The tents and equip- 
age of the public ,vomen and dancing girls ,vere 
among the most splendid in this caravan. The 
Moggrebyn (i. e. Western, or Barbary) caravan, com- 
prised, of late years, altogether fron1 six to eight thou- 
sand men (it has been forty thousand); in the year 
1814 very few joined it. 'fhe Eastern caravan of 
this year consisted chiefly of a large party of Ma- 
lays frOlTI Java, Sllll1atra, and the Malabar coast. A 
solitary Afghan pilgrim, an old man of extraordinary 
strength, had ,valked all the 'yay frol11 Caubul to 
, and iÙtended to return in the sanIe Inanner. 
Vast numbers of Bedouins flock to Mekka at the 
tilne of the pilgIÍ1nage; alld others fronl every pal"t 



of \rahia. :\Tany of these pil tT rin1s d ;)pend entirely 
for sulJ
i'Stence, both on tIlt> j()urney and at ;\[ekka, 
on begging; other;:) bring SOJne sluall productions 
froln their resppctivp (.ount rips for Rale. 
h The )loggr :)h) n
, for eXéuHple, ùring their red 
 (lntI "oollen eloaks; the Enrop 
(In rrnrks, 
s and "lipper:5, hard,,"are, t.ll}uroidercd 
unber, trinkets of J'
uropean manufar- 
tUrt J , knit silk pnr8e
c.; tht
 of \nato1ia. 
hring carpt)ts, r-;ilks, and _r\ngora. sha\\ Is; the l'er- 

, Ca
h'nert' sha\vh
 and lëlTQ"e silk handkerchiefs; 
the \.fghans, tooth-hru"\he
, Inade of the spongy 
bou{rhs of 3 tree gro\\'ing- in Bokhara, hpads of a ) el- 
lo\\r soap
tonc', and plain eoarse 8ha\\ 1:-" InanufaC'- 
tured in their o\\'n .ountry; the Indiall
, the nu- 
nlerous prodnction
 of their rieh and pxtenRi\ e r
gion; the people of \
 eUlen, snakes for the Per:siall 
pipes, sandal
, and various other ".orks in leather; 
and the ...\frÜ.al1:i hring 'ariou
 tirtieles adapted to 
the slave trade. 
""lien all the required C'eremonies have been gone 
through at 'Ickka, the ,vholc concourse of pilgrÍlns 
repair together on a certain day to ::\Iount Ararat, 
some on canlel s, some on mules, or (ls
e:;, anel the 
greater nUluber barefooted, this being the Jllost JllC- 
ritorious ,yay of perfonning a journey of eighteen or 
t,venty Iniles. ' ". e ,vere several hours,' says 
Burckhardt, 'before ,,"e could reach the outskirts 
of the to,vn, so great ""as the ero\vd of camels. Of 
the half-naked IIadjis, all dressed in the ,vhite 
ihraln-solne sat on their camels, mules, or asses, 
reading the Koran,-solne ejaculated loud prayers, 
"rhile others cursed their drivers, and quarrelled ,vith 
those near thenl, ,yho '\vere choking up the pas- 
sages. ' Having cleared a narro\v pass in the Inoun- 
tains, the plain of Arafat opened out. Here the dif- 
ferent caravans began to disperse in search of places 
to pitch their tents. Hadjis ,ycre seen in every di- 
rection ,vandering among the tents in search of their 



companions, ,vhom they had lost in the 
along the road; and it ,vas several hours before the 
noise and clamaur had subsided. 
"In the 111orning, Burckhardt ascended the summit 
of Mount Arafat, frorn \\"hence he counted about 
three thousand tents, dispersed over the plain, of 
,vhich two-thirds belonged to the t\VO Hadj cara- 
vans, and to the suite and soldiers of l\lohamll1ed 
Ali; but the greatest number of the asselnbled mul- 
titudes 'were,' S:lYs our traveller, 'like myself, 
,vithout tents.' Those of the ,vife of l\'lohammed 
Ali, the mother of Tousoun and Ibrahim Pasha, 
\vere magnificent,-the transport of her baggage 
alone, from Djidda tq Mekka, having required five 
hundred camels. 
" , Her tent ,vas in fact an encampment, consisting 
of a dozen tents of differen1 sizes, inhabited by her 
,vornen; the ,,,,hole enclosed by a ,vall of linen cloth, 
eight hundred paces in cire uit, the single entrance 
of ,vhich was guarded by eunuchs in splendid 
dresses. Around this enclosure ,vere pitched the 
tents of the men 'vho fOTIlled her nlunerous suite. 
The beautiful embroidery on the exterior of this 
linen palace, ,vith the various colours displayed in 
every part of it, constituted an object which re- 
Ininded me of sonle descriptions in the Arabian Tales 
of a Thousand and One Nights.' 
"l\lr. Burckhardt says, he estimated the number of 
persons asselnbled.on the plain at seventy thousand; 
but whether any, or ho\v nlany of thenl, were sup- 
plied by' angels/ he does not say: it is, ho,vever, 
deserving of remark, that he is the third traveller 
,vho mentions the same nUl11ber. 'fhis enorlnous 
1nass, after washing and purifying the body accord- 
ing to la,v, or going through the motions ,vhere 
water was not to be had, no\V pressed for\vards 
towards the 11lountain of Arafat, and covered its 
sides from top to bottom. At the appointed hour, 
the Cadi of l\fekka took Iris stand on a stone plat- 



fonn on the top of th:. lllountain, anù began his 
senTIon, to ,yhich the Inultitude appeared to listen in 
sole nUl and respectful silence. \t every pause, 
ho\vever, the a
scnlbled 1l1ultitudes,vélvcd the skirts 
of thcir iht"(l1JlS 0' er their hl'ad
 dud rent the air 
,,'ith shout
 of ' Lebeyk, allalnuna leu 'yh. !'-' IIere 
,yp arc, at thy comlnands, 0 l--:od!' 'During the 
"ravings of the 'ihraJllS,' says llurckha'rdt, 'the side 
of the Inountain, thickly cro\vded as it \vas by the 
people in their ,vhitc garments, had the appt1aranl"e 
of a cataract of ".ater; "rhile the green ulllbrellas, 
,vith "rhich seví'ral thousand hadji
, sittin rr ün their 
call1eis belo\v, "cre provided, hare SOllle ref'elnblancc 
to a verdant plain.' 'fhe as 
 tnblage of such a 
Inultitudp,-to every olIt,vard appf>aralH'c humbling 
theillsci vcs in prayer and adoration before God,- 
I1UIst be an itnposing"and iInpressive 8pectaclc to hÍ1n 
"rho first obseryps it, \\'lH
ther \tùlonunedau, Chris- 
tian, J C"', or Pagan. 'It "
as a sight, indeed,' 
 Pitts,' able tu pi(\rre one's hí'art, to h('hold :sO 
Inany in their gaf111cllts of humility anù Illortifica- 
tion, "rith their naked heads and cheeks ,vatered ,vith 
, and to hear their gripvous sighs and sobs, beg- 
ging earnestly for the renlission of their sins.' 
Burckhardt mentions the first arrival of a black 
Darfoor pilgTiu1 at thë tCl11ple, at the tÏ1ne ,vhen it 
,vas illtuninated; and fronl eight to ten thousand 
persons in the art of adoration, ,vho ,vas so over. 
a\ved, that, aftcr remaining prostrate for 
ome time, 
, he burst into a flood of tears; and in the height of 
his enlotion, instead of reciting the usual prayers 
of the visiter, only exclaÏlned-" 0 God! no\v take 
Iny soul, for this is paradise !', , 
" ....
s the sun descended behind the "'estern moun- 
tains, the Cadi shut his book: instantly the cro,vds 
rushed do\vn the mountains: the tents ,vere struck, 
and the ,vhole Il1a8S of pilgriIns Inoved for\vard 
across the plain on their rcturn. Thousands of 
torches ,vere uo,v lighted; volleys of artillery and 



of musketry v/ere fired: sky-rockets innumerable 
were let off; the Pasha's band of music were played 
till they arrived at a place called Mezdelfé, when 
every one lay do,vn on the bare ground ,vhere he 
could find a spot. Here another sermon was 
preached, commencing ,vith the first da,vn, and con.. 
tinuing till the first rays of the sun appear, ,vhen the 
nlultitude again move for,vard, ,vith a slo,v pace, to 
Wady Muna. about three nliles off. This is the 
scene for the ceremony of 'thro,ving ston
s at the 
Devil;' every pilgrinl must thro,v seven little stones 
at three several spots in the valley of M una, or 
twenty-one in the whole; and at each throw repeat 
the words, , In the nanle of God; God is great; ,ve 
do this to secure ourselves fronl the Devil and his 
troops. ' Joseph Pitts says, 'as I "Tas going to 
throw the stones, a facetious hadji met DIe; saith 
he, " Yon mC!-y save .your labour at present, if you 
please, for I have hit out the Devil's eyes already.'" 
The pilgrims are here sho,vn a rock ,vith a deep split 
in the nliddle, ,vhich ,vas made by the angel turning 
aside the knife of Abraham, ,vhen he \vas about to 
sacrifice his son Isaac. Pitts, on being told this, 
observes, 'it must have been a good stroke indeed.' 
The pilgrims are taught also"to believe, that the cus- 
tom of 'stoning the Devil' is to conlnlenlorate the 
endeavour of his satanic majesty to dissuade Isaac 
from following his father, and ,vhispering in his ear 
that he was going to slay him. 
"This' stoning' in the valley of l\iuna occupies a 
day or t'vo, after ,vhich comes the. grand sacrifice 
of animals, some brought by the several hadjis, 
others purchased from the Bedouins for the occasion; 
the throats of which must al,vays be cut with their 
faces towards the Kaaba. At the pilgrilnage in 
question, the number of sheep thus slaughtered.' in 
the name of the most merciful God,' is represented 
as small, amounting only to between six and eight 
thousand. The historian Kotobeddyn, quoted by 



nurrkhardt, relates, that ,,-hrn the Caliph :\Ioktpda 
perfonncd the pilgTÍ1uagc, in the yrar of the Ilf\jira 
350, he sacrificed on this occasion forty thousand 
caInel:; and CO,\.s, and fifty thous(lnd f-;heep. TIar- 
thclna talkf) of thirty thousand oxcn bein tT slain, and 
their carcas
es g-i, ën to thp poor, ,vho (lppcared to 
hÌ1n 'Illore anxiou
 to have their upllics lillet! tJlan 
their sins remitted.' One is at CI loss to imagine 
,,"here, in such a nlispr1.ble country, all these thuu- 
 and tC'ns of thousands of calnf'ls, co\,"s, and 
f'hcep call po

ibly he suhsisted; the nUlubcrs Jllay 
he exagg-crated, but there is no question of their 
being- "f'ry gTcat. 'The ff'ast beIng endpd, aU the 
pilgrinl':; had their heads shaved, thre\v off the .ihr{ll z., 
and resulllpd their ordinary r 10thing-; a larger fair 
'vas no\\r held, the valley bla ed all Hight ,vith illu- 
Ininations, honfires, thr disrharge of artillery, and 
Jirc\vorks; and the hadjis then rcturnt
d 10 'le1..h.a. 
l\Iany of the poorer pilgriJns, ho""c'" 
r, relnaillcd to 
f(last on the otTals of the 
laug-htPred shrep. ,At 
l\lecca the cereillollies of the l
aaba and the IJrura 
,vere again to be repeated, and then the hadj "'''as 
truI) pt'rfulued. Burckharclt ll1akes no 11lcntion of 
any females becolllillg hadjis by a visit to .A.\rafat, 
thoug-h \li Bey talks of t\VO thousand. There is no 
ab:solute prohibition; but frolll ,,-hat follo\vs, no g-reat 
Clnent for the fair sex to go through the 
" , The l\lohaInInedan la,v prescribes, that no un- 
married 'VOlnan shall .perform thp pilgrimage; and 
that even evcry lllarried 'VOluan must be accompa- 
nied by her husband, or at lea
t by a very near re- 
lation (the Shaffay sect does not even allo\v the 
latter). Felnalc hadjis SOlnetÏ1nes arrive from 
Turkey for the hadj; rich old \vido,vs ,vho ,vish to 
see l\[ckka before they die; or ,vomel1 ,vho set out 
,vith their husbands, and lo:se them on the road by 
case. In such ca
es the fenlalc finds at Djidcla. 
delyls (or, as this class is called, :\Iuhallil) ready to 



faßaitate their progress through the sacred territory 
in the character of husbands. The marriage con- 
tract is \vritten out before the Kadhy; and the lady, 
accompanied by her delyl, performs the pilgrimage 
to IVlekka, Arafat, and all the sacred places. This, 
however, is understood to be merely a nonlinal nlar- 
riagé; and.the delyl must divorce the \VOIUan on his 
return to Djidda: if he \vere to refuse a divorce, the 
la,v cannot cOlnpel him to it, and the 1narriage would . 
be considered binding: but he could no longer ex- 
ercise the lucrative profession of delyl; and my in- 
formant could only recollect t\VO examples of the 
delyl continuing to be the ,voman's husband. I be- 
lieve there is not any exaggeration of the number, 
in stati
lg that there are eight hundred full-gro,vn 
delyls, besides boys who are learning the profession. 
Whenever a shop-keeper loses. his customers, or a 
poor man of letters ,vi shes to procure as much 
money as ,viII purchase an Abyssinian slave, he 
turns delyl. The profession is one of little repute; 
but many a prosperous Mekkawy has, at some period 
of his life, been a n1ember of it.' 
" Burckhardt remained at Mekka a ,vhole month 
after the conclusion of the hadj, at which time it 
appeared like a deserted to,vn. 
" , Of its brilliant shops one-fourth only remained; 
and in the streets, where a few weeks before it was 
necessary to force one's ,vay through the crowd, not 
a single hadji ,vas seen, except solitary beggars ,vho 
raised their plaintive voices towards the windo\vs of 
the houses ,vhich they supposed to be still inhabited. 
Rubbish and filth covered all the streets, and no- 
body appeared disposed to relnove it. The skirts 
of the to,vn ,vere crowded with the dead carcasses 
of camels, the smell from ,vhich rendered the air, 
even in the midst of the to,vn, offensive, and cer- 
tainly contributed to the many diseases now preva- 
lent.' ' 
"Disease and Inortality, which succeed to the 



fatigues enl1ured on the journey, or ar caus \ù by tll 
lig-ht covering- of thp ihranl, the unhcalthy 10dCTing
[ckka, the bad farp, and sOJnctÏ1ncs absolute 
,vant, fill thr Inosque ,,-ith deaù bodies carried thither 
to receive the Ilnaln's pra) lIT, or ,yith 
ick pel 
Inany of ,vl1oln ,,,-hen their ùi::)sulutiùn approaches, 
arc brought to thp l"olunllad

, that they n1ar either 
be cured by the bight of the I
aaba, or at IClli)t to 
ha\ e the satisfaction of expiring ,vi thin the sacred 
enclosure. Poor haòjis, \\rOnl out ,vith dis -1ase and 
hunger, are seen dragging their enlaciateù bodies 
along the column
; and ,,-hen no longer able to 
 h forth their hand to a
k the passenger for 
charity, they place a bo,vl to Técci\re alm
 near the 
Jnat 011 ,vhich they lay thenlSelyc
. \Vhen they feel 
théir last mOlnents approaching, they cover thcln- 
selves ,,"ith their tattprcù gannents; and often a" hole 
day passes before it is discuvered that they arc dead. 
For a Inonth sub
pqucnt to the conclusion of the 
hadj, I found, al1no
t every 1l1orning, corpses of pH.. 
 lying in the n1û
qnp ;)uyself and a Greek hadji, 
WhOlll accident had broug-ht to th
 HpOt, once closed 
the eyes of a poor I\Ioggrcbyn pilb'1'Ün, "rho had 
cra"rled into the neighuourhood of the J{aaba to 
breathe his last, as the ..\Io
lcnls say, 'in the anns 
of the prophet and of the guardian angels.' IIp inti- 
mated by signs his ,,-ish t11at "
e should sprinkle 
Zeu1zclll ,vater over hirn;. and ,vhile ,ve ,,,,ere doing so 
he expired: half an hour aftcf\vard he "as buried. 
"The situation of l\lckka is singularly Ulùlappy, and 
ill adapted for the aCCOTIIIDodatioll of the nUlnerous 
votaries of Islalll that fto('k thither to perform the 
rites of the pilgrimage. 1'hc to,vn is built in a nar- 
ro,v valley, hemmed in by barren .mountains; the 
,vater of the ,,-ells is bitter or brackish; no pastures 
for cattle are near it; no land fit for agriculture; 
and the only resour<-:e iron1 ,vhich its inhabitants de- 
rive their subsistence ið a little traffic, and the 
visits. of the hadjis. !tIre Burckhardt estimates 



the population of the to,vn and suburbs at twenty- 
five to thirty thousand stationary inhabitants, to 
,vhich he adds three or four thousand Abyssinian 
and black slaves. 
" On the ,vhole, notwithstanding all that Burckhardt 
records as to certain symptoms of ellthusiasnl in the 
course of his hadj, it is sufficiently plain, that even 
in the original seat of l\lahommedanism, th
gious feelings of the people have cooled down con- 
siderably. rfhe educated Moslems every where are 
lnostly of the sect of Mahomet Ali of Egypt; nor can 
we have any doubt that all things are thus ,vorking 
together for the re-establishlnent of the true religion 
in the regions 'v here man ,vas first civilized, and 
,vhere the oracles of God were .uttered. In the 
n1ean time, the decline of the arch-heresy of the 
East ,vill be regretted by no one who judges of the 
tree by the fruit. ' A long residence,' says Burck- 
hardt, 'alnong Turks, Syrians, and Egyptians' (and 
no man kne,v them better) 'justifies me in declar- 
ing that they are ,vholly deficient in virtue, honour, 
and justice; that they have little true piety, and still 
less charity or forbearance; and that honesty is only 
to be found in their paupers or id

AI)}) }'l"4 D IÀ. 


[C ] 


'rUE ,vortl I\..oRA
, derived from the '"erL I
ARA, to 
read, properly signifies lht"> read lng, leb eiul. o. tit t 

'hic'" oun-ht to be 'read; by \vhich llalue the 'lohaul- 
 df'llote not only the entire book or VUhll11 
of the }{oran, uut al
o aÎ1y particular chapter or st'(.- 
tion of it, just as the J('''9S, in their lallgllag', .all 
the" hole Seripture, or an} }>a11 uf it, hy the nalUl ll 
of Karuh, OJ' .,\likra, "01'<1::; of preei...('ly the lõ;alUC 
ori{rín and in1purt tl
 }{uran. 'rhi:-, hook nlu
t he r("- 
gardcll a:.i the code of hnvs, religion, apt! Illorality, 
,,'hich .:\Iohanll1)pd, ill his (.haract('r of legislator and 
pn)phl't, })rlJIllulg-ated to the pt'opl
 of \rabia. .As 
it i
 therefore thp 0111) book of la\\r alllong- tll . )lus- 
suhnans, and ,.olnpreht"uds al
o the religious doc- 
trincs \\ hich they are taught to bcli 
Ye, it fullo\\ s, 
that ".ith th(,111 a ùoctor in the la\v i
 al:-;o a doctor 
in theolog), "hich t\\'o profe
 are" holly in
parable. rrhi
, upon "rhi
h is founded all their 
thpology and ju"risprudcnce, is comprised in the 
 oran, in the :StllUe 111anner as tht
 ciyil code of the 
Jc,,'s is cOlnprised in the fi,
c books of 1\loses. 
 collection of Tnoral traditiull
, cÛJnposeò of 
the sayings and actions of the prophet, and fonning- 
a kind of supplen1ent to the !{oran, the 
Ioslelns call 
the Sonnah; just as the J
\VS ha,.c dcnonlÏnated the 
book containing their oral traditions, the ./Hish/za. 
The entire I
oran is divided into one hundred and 
fourteen portions, "Thich are deno1l1inated Suras, or 
chapters; and theðp again into 
ll1aller divisions, 
(.aIled .llyot, ans\vcring nearly, though not exactly, 
to onr verses. 
 apprdrs to be an cntire ahscnCt of any tJJÏng 
like de
jgll or lllCthod ill either the lal ger or the 



smaller divisions. N 
ither the tilne at ,vhich they 
were delivered, nor the Inatter tbey contain, was the 
rule by ,vhich they \vere arranged. They ,vere, in 
fact, apparently thro\vn together without order or 
meaning. One verse has seldonl any connexion 
,vith the precedi
lg; and the same subject, unless it 
be sonle narrative, such as that of Abrahanl, Joseph, 
or Pharaoh, distorted from the Sacred Scriptures, is 
in no case continued for a dozen verses in succes- 
sion; each one appears an isolatead precept or ex- 
clamation, the tendency and pertinence of which it 
is often difficult and frequently impossible to dis- 
cover. The first nine titles will convey to the reader 
a fair conception of the arrangement, and something 
.of the nature, of -the subjects enbraced in the ,vhole. 
I. The Preface. 2. The Co,v. 3. The Family of 
Iram. 4. W onlen. 5. Table. 6. Cattle.. 7. Al 
Araf. 8. The Spoils. 9. The DeGlaration of Im- 
As to the plan or structure of this pseudo-revela- 
tion, it is remarkable that Mohammed nlakes God 
the speaker throughout. This should be borne in 
Inilld by the reader in perusing the extracts given in 
the preceding ,york. The addresses are for the 
most part Inade directly to the. prophet, informing 
hitn "That he is to communicate to his countrymen 
and the ,vorld; in other cases, the precepts, pro- 
nlÏses, or tbreatcnings are addressed immediately to 
the unbelievers, or the faithful, according as the 
burden of thelll applies to the one or the other. r-rhe 
follo,ving citations lnay serve as a specimen of the 
\vhole book. " N o,v ,ve kno\v that ,vhat they speak 
grieveth thee: yet, they do not .c.tccuse thee of false- 
hood; but the ungodly contradict the signs of God. 
And apostles before thee have been accounted liars: 
but they patiently bore their being accounted liars, 
and their being vexed, until our help canle unto 
them." "Say, Verily I aln forbidden to ,vorship the 
false deities ,vhich ye invoke besides God. 
ay, I 


, {j 

".ill not follo,v your dcsin.'s; for then should I crr, 
Ilpithcr should I be OIlP of tgo
c ,vito Illre rightly di- 
ft'eted. Sa}, I believe a(.C'ording to the plain decla- 
ration ,vhich 1 have rc .eivf'd froln my Lonl; but y , 
IJave forgf'd ]ie-s cone(.rlling hilu.' 'fIle ".ord 
a} ," "rhich is ahnost of perpctual ocrurrcn.c in 
the l\:oran, is genprally prefi)..crl to thl"' 
entenc s or 
parag-raphs eontainiug- a ß1cssage to the ppoplp; and 
the \\.ord ., ,Alls,ver" is employpd 'v hcrcver any 
hypothetical or foreseen objeetions ar' to be ob- 
\'iated, or any doubtful qncstions to bc rcsolvpd. 
h'rhey ,viII ask thec also ,,,hat they c:hall h(.
to\\ in 
: ans\\"cr, \\ hat ye haye to spare. 'fhey ,viII 
also ask thee roncerning orphans: ans,\.pr, 'ro 
right(1ously ,vith thcnl is best; and if ye illtenncòdle 
,vith the luanagemcllt of ,vhat belongs to thpln, do 
thenl no ".rong; they arC' J OUf hrethcn: God 
kllo,veth thc C'orrupt dealer froln the righteous; and 
if God please he ,\'"ill surc1y distress you, for (]ocl is 
mighty and ".isc," To others the Divine luandatcB 
are usually couchpd in the follo,\.ing style: "() Inen, 
no,v is the apostle come unto }UU "ith tnlth from 
tlu:I Lord; helicve, therefore; it ,vill be lJ 
ttpr for 
you." "\V e have fonncrly destroyed the gencra- 
tions ,vho ,vere before you, 0 InCH of l\[ecea, 
,,'hell they had ac-ted unjustly; and our apostles had 
COß1C unto theln ,vith evident miracles, and thev 
\\.ould not believc. Thus do '\ve rc,\.arâ the '\\ icke;l 
ople." "0 truc bclievers, "'"age ,var against surh 
of the infidels as are Hear you; and let them find 
severity in you: and kno,v that God is ,vith those 
that fear hiIn." "0 true believers, raise not your 
voices above the voice of th
 prophet; neither 
speak loud unto hÏ1n in diseourse, as ye speak loud 
unto one another, lest your ,\.orks become vain, and 
ye perceive it not." 
Immediately after the title, at the head of every 
chapter, ,vith the single exrC'ption of the ninth, is 
IJrcfixcd the solemn funn. "IN 'fHE NA)U': t"F rClI!!: 



MOST :MERCIFUL GOD." 'fhis form is called by the 
Mohammedans, Bismil
h, and is invariably placed 
by then1 at the beginning of all their books and 
writings in general, as a peculiar mark or distin- 
guishing characteristic of their religion: it being 
deemed a species. of ilnpiety to olnit it. The Jews, 
for the same purpose, Inake use of the fonn, "In the 
name of the Lord," or, "In the name of the - great 
God:" and the Eastern Christians that of, "In the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and. of the Holy 
Ghost." . 
In its general outline of facts, the Koran corres- 
ponds with the Old Testalnent in the following his- 
torical details: the accounts of the creation of the 
,vorld; of the fall of Adam; of the general deluge; 
of the deliverance - of Noah and his falnily in the 
ark; the call of Abrahan1; the stories of Isaac and 
Ishmael; of Jacob and the patriarchs; the selec- 
tion of the Je,vs as God's chosen people; the pro- 
phetic office, miracles, and administration of Moses; 
the inspiration and authority of the llebrew h
rians, prophets, and psahnists, espe
iany of David 
and Solomon; and, lastly, of the promise of the ad- 
vent of the l\lessiah, ,vith many of the accompany- 
ing predietions respecting it. 
Again, ,vith the New 'restament the H
oran con- 
curs in the recognition of Jesus Christ as the pro- 
Inised Messiah of the J e,vs; in his miraculous con- 
ception by th
th or Spirit of God; his imma.. 
culate nativity of the Virgin 
lary; his title of 
Logos, or Word of God; in the n1iraculous birth of 
John the Baptist, son of Zecharias, as"his forerunner; 
in his perfofluance of Jnauy 111ighty signs and mira- 
cles, such as healing the sick; raising the dead, and 
controlling and casting out devils;_ in his rejection 
and persecutïon by his o,vn countl]7-nlen; his con- 
demnation to the death of the cross; his bodily as- 
cension into heaven; his officiating there as a Me- 
diator and Intercessor between God and man, and 



as JudCTe of all IDen at th
 last day. .Aft{'r th
arnplc, ho\vever, of 
onlC of the 
u}cipnt hereti .s, 
'lohanuncd, as appears froln the follo\\f'inO' passag-

denied the reality of thp Sa, iour"
U .And for that they have not 1..> 'Ii 'V 
d in Jc 
lIS, anù 
have spoken 3 u ainst 
Llry a g-ri \ Oll:"\ 
alulnny; and 
ha' e said, V crily 'V(' have slain ('hrist J e=-,u.
son of 
Iary, the apostle of God; yet they sIp\\- hiln 
not, neither enlcifi{'ù hirn, hut ht' W'a:'\ rf'prcsf
by onc in his likeness. ['hey did not rpally kill 
him; but God took him np to him
plf: .U1Ù God is 
ß1ighty and \\f'ise." "\.lld the .TC\VS ùevi
cd a 'lra- 
tagelu ag-ainst hint; but God dc"i
ed a stratag-elu 
against theln; and God is the best de' i
cr of stra- 
tageln::;." 'fhis stratagcll1, ;lP 'ording to Ïhe l\los- 
lenIs, \vas God's taking .Tc
us up into h
a\ t
n, .nul 
stanIping his likcnes:5 on anoth'r person" \\.ho " as 
apprehended and rrueified in hi5 
tPad. 'rh
ir con- 
stant tradition i
 that it \va
 not J
sus hin1
plf ,,"ho 
r\vcnt that ignominious death, but .oln..body 
in his shape and r(,,
These I1Ull1erous coincidcnces of the !{oran ,vith 
the facts and doctrines of the Bible are stran

rsC'd ,vith l11atter thft ITlust ÌTu"ollg-ruou:-;; 
,vith extravagant fables, lllonstrous pcryersions of 
the truth, and ridiculou
 and endless pu("rilitic
Thit, is a
countcd for on the supposition, that ,vhile 
the authentic facts }NerC derived immediately from 
the canonical Scripture
, the fiction
 and absurdities 
,vere deduced in part from the traditions of the Tal- 
mudic and Rabhinical ,vrit
rs; and in part from the 
apocryphal GÙ8pel-.;, or fronl the books of \daln, of 
Seth, of Enoch, of Noah, and other sÏlniIar fahrica- 
tions, ,veIl kno\vn in church history as having necn 
extensively in use alnong the heretics of the first 
centuries. .. . 
.A. specimen or t,vo of thl' lnanncr in which 
omc of 
the best-kno\vn nal ratives of the Old 'festalnent ap- 
pear in the Koran, may not be unsuitably adduced here. 




"Our messengers also came formerly unto Abra- 
ham with good tidings. They said, Peace be upon 
thee. And he answered, And on you be peace! and 
he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. And his 
wife Sarah ,vas standing by; and she laughed: and 
we promised her Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob" She 
said, Alas! shall I bear a son, who am old; this my 
husband also being advanced'in years 1 Verily, this 
would be a wonderful thing. The angels ans.wered, 
Dost thou ,vonder at the effect of the command of 
God 1 The mercy of God and his blessings be upon 
you. And when his apprehension had departed from 
Abrahaln, and the good tidings of Isaac's birth had 
come unto him, he disputed ,vith us concerning the 
people of Lot; for AbrahalTI ,vas a pitiful, compas- 
sionate, and devout person. The angels said unto 
him, 0 Abrahaln, abstain from this; for no,v is the 
command of thy Lord cODle, to put their sentence in 
execution, and an inevitable punishluent is ready to 
fall upon them. And ,vhen our messengers came 
unto Lot, he ,vas troubled for them; and his arm 
,vas straitened concerning thelll; and he said, This 
is a grievous day. And his people caIne unto him, 
rushing upon him: and they had fonnel'ly been guilty 
of ,vickedness. Lot said unto them, 0 my people, 
these my daughters åre more lawful for you: there- 
fore fear God, and put Ine not to shame by wronging 
my- guests. Is there not a Ulan of prudence among 
you 1 They answered, Thou knowest that we have 
no need of thy daughters; and thou well knowest 
,vhat 've would have. He said, If 1 had strength 
sufficient to oppose thee, or I could have recourse 
unto a po,verful support, I ,vould certainly do it. 
The angels said, 0 llot, verily ,ve are the lnessen.. 
gers of thy I.lord; they shall by no means come in 
unto thee. Go forth, therefore, ,vith thy family, in 
some part of the night, and let not any of you turn 
hack: but as for thy 'v ife, that shall happen unto her 
,vhich shall happen unto theln. Verily, the predic- 



tion of their puni
hall be fulfillcd in the 
" ...\nd ...\.brahanl said, Verily, laIn (Toing unto my 
Lord ,vho "ill dir('cot nIC. 0 l,ord, grant mp a. 
righteous issuc! "-herefore ,ve 
u..quaillt 'd Idnl 
that he should ha, f' a 
on "ho Fhould L' (t ßlt.(.k 
youth. And ,vhen he had attainpd to years of dis- 
cretion, and could join in acts of reliCTion "
pith hiru, 
Ahrahan1 said unto hinI, () lny 
on, '('rily I sa'v in a 
drcam that I should off'r thee in saprifice: considt'r 
thf'r{'fore ,vhat thou art of opinion I should do. TIp 
all::H,"cred, 0 HI)" father, do ,vhat thou art cOJnmalldcd: 
halt find mC', if God please, a patient p('fSon. 
An(I ,vhcn thpy had 
ublnittcd theul'-'clv's to thp 
di ,'in ,vill, and Ahrahalll had laid hi
 son pro "trate 
on his fal"l', 'vc {"ricd unto him, 0 .Ahr(thanl, 110'\ 
hast thou vcrificd the vision. l'luæ do \\"P r ,vard 
the righteous. ,- eri1y, this "as a 111anif'st trial. 
And "'C ran
onled hin1.,,"ith a nohle ,-jctiln." 
rl'he follo,,"iu CT passage lllay ber"e to illustrate the 
pondl\n(.p of th(' Koran ,-çith the hi
toric(.d re- 
lations of the X e\v rrestanlcnt :- 
"Zacharias callcd on his Lord, and said, l,ord, 
g1\ e mp froln thee 
l good offspring-, for thou art the 
hearer of prayer. And the angels called to him, 
,vhilc hp stood praying- in the chanl},er, sayin(r, 
,r prily, God proll1iscth thee a 
on, naulcd John, ".ho 
shall bear ,vitnes
 to THE 'VORl) ,,"hieh cOll1eth from 
God; an honourable person, Ch(lstp, antI one of the 
righteous prophets. lIe ans\\
ered, Lord, ho,v shall 
I have a son, 'VhPll old age hath overtaken me, and 
DiY ,vife is barren 
 rrhe angel said, 
o God cloth 
that ,yhich he pleaseth. Zaeharias alls\\
cred, Lord, 
give me a sign. rrhe ang-el said, Thy sigTl shall be, 
that thou shalt speak unto no Inan for thrce days, 
other,vi8e than by gesture. AJld "Then the angels 
said, 0 :\Iary, \"erily, God hath chosen thee, and hath 
purified thee, and hath chosen thëe above all the 
'VOJnen of the ,vorld: "hen the angels said, 0 l\lary, 



verily, God sendcth thee good tidings, that thou 
shalt bear THE WORD, proceeding from himself; his 
name shall be Christ Jesus, the son 
f Mary; honour- 
able in this ,vorld and in the ,vorld to CaIne, and one 
of those \vho approach near to the presence of God: 
She ans\vered, Lord, ho,v shall I have a son, since 
a man hath 110t touched me 
 'rhe angel said, So 
God createth that "\vhich he pleaseth: \\1hen he de- 
creeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is: 
God shall teach him the Scripture, and ,visdom, and 
the law, and the Gospel; and he shall appoint him 
his apostle to the children of Israel." 
But besides agreel11ents with the Old and N e,v 
'restal11ents of this palpable kind, the !{oran betrays 
its obligations to the sacred volume by nUlnerous 
coincidences, more or less direct, :\vith the senti- 
mcnts, the Îlllagery, and the phraseology of Scrip- 
ture. Indeed, the 1110st interesting light in ,vhich 
the I{oran is to be vie,ved is as a spurious resem- 
blance of the inspired oracles of J c,vs and Christians. 
'rhe extent to which the Dible of IV[ohammedans 
is 111ade up of plagiarislns froln the true revelation 
can scarcely be conceived by one ,vho has not insti- 
tuted a special inquiry into the contents of eaGh, 
,vith. the express design of tracing the analogy be- 
tween thel11. Of the fact, ho,vever, of. the !{oran 
being constructed, in great n1éasure, from the Inate- 
rials furnished by the Old and N e\v Testalnents, no 
one can doubt, who is assured that the follo,ving is 
but a specimen of hundreds of sÎlllilar correspon- 
dencies \vhich rnight easily be nlade out between 
the two. 

Take heed that ye do not your 
alms before men to be seen ofthem ; 
otherwise ye have no reward of 
your Father which is in heaven. 
.Jesus of Nazareth, a man ap- 
proved ofGorl among you by mira- 
clf:s and wonders, and !Signs which 
God did by him. 

Make not ):our alms of none 
effect, by reproaching or mischief; 
as he that .laycth out what he hath, 
to appear unto men to give alms. 
We gave unto .Jesus, the son of 
Mary, manifest signs, and strength. 
eueù him with tho Holy Spirit. 





Thou shalt give life fOT lift', tooth 
for tooth, foot fc.,r {hot, burning f"r 
, wound for wound, strillC 
for btri!JC. 

nut their mmds '\\ ere blilulccl: 
for until this day rcmulJlcth the 
same Vf'iI umahcn a\\ a} lß the reac.1- 
 of the Olc.1 1'f'
tnmeHt. Hut 
c\ .'n unto ttlÏs c.1ay when :\Io
" i
reali, the vdl i
 upon their heart. 
They said th.'rel,)f(' Ullto him, 
'Vhat sibil "hcwpst thou theil, that 
"C' lJUl) f" C find l}cIievc thpc' ! 
In the l.,( 
inniJl'; Uoo created the 
heaven Bnd tlJe earth. And Goo 
said, I,ct thcro be light, aud r! 
\\ a
And when he PIOS(;fo;) was full 
r"rt) } l'drS old, it l'umc iuto his 
J1l'art to \ i
it his brethren, the l'hil- 
rc'Jl of J
Allrl in thf. latter time of their 
kingdom, "hen the trall

arc come to the lull, a kin
 of fìc'rre 
countenance, aud rind 'rbt8nuinl[ 
dark sentences, shall &t:lud up. 
, ,,,ill open my moulh in para- 
bks; I ,\ iU utter thiu!!s \" hiçh 
have bc'en k{'pt secn't from the 
foundation of thp v.orld. 
And the sc'yc!lth all
el f;ounùed ; 
:mcl there were greRt ,'oices in 
l\ en, sayin
, The kingdom!'; of 
this worM arc bee-ome thc kinJ!- 
ÙOIn8 of our Lord and of his ('hrbt. 
For behold, I created new heavens 
ancI a new eart h. \ V e look for nt>w 
Ilea\ en
 and a new earth. I \\ ill 
('allSe you to come up out of your 
graves. And en.:ry ma.1l 8haU re- 
ceive hi..; own re\\ard accordi1lg to 
11Ìs own labour. 

I was envious at the foolish when 
I saw the prosperity of the "icI
Thus my heart was grieved. 

If thou, I,ord, should:;;t mark ini- 
quities, 0 I.ore1 who sl!åU stand r 

\\"c llave comm'lnded 
thrm that the) shouh1 give life rc.r 
nd l') c for C) c, unc.1 no
c rc)r 
nOM', and car for I'.1r, and toolh for 
tooth, ancl tInt \\ oUlHI
 bl10uId be 
hcd by retalIation. 
'l'hcre IS ofthun ,,110 henrkcnNh 
unto th c "hell thou rendc'st the 
horan; but "c bave ca
t v{'ils 
o\per their hCßrt
, that thc) hould 
not undcr
talldltJ und dl
their ears. 
'fh(- infi.leb say, Un">

f\igu be Sl'ut dU\\ n unto him from 
hi..; Lord, we \\ ill not he'lil've. 
It is he \\ ho hath crt'.J.tcd the 
hcnvf'ns and thl' earth: And" hen- 
ever ho sa) eth unto a thing, lle, it 
I have aln>atly ùwelt nmon
to the age of forty yran. bl'fì,rc I 
receÏ\p('cl it .(11)(" Koran). lJo)e 
thereforc not uncI, r
Accorc 1 111g tn thy dreum "naIl thy 
J..oraJ "ho()"Ic th{'e and ((,deh thcø 
trtP interprt'tation of darl.. 8R) ing"S. 
"P e tuugh, .urn the fnterpreta- 
tiofa of durk bn) in
it. bu' lilt, Ilrcatcr 
pout of men do not undc>rstand. 
o I onl, thou Imst !!i\"ell mc a 
Ilart of tho king,1olll, and ha!it 
taught me the intcrl}rctaLion of dark 
sa) iugs, 
Anti his will be thf' kin
dom on 
ttIC day wher
on the trumpet shall 
be so W1ùed. 

The day will come when the 
hall be changed into another 
h, :lIId the. heavc'ns into other 
he.l\"uls; and IW'II 
hall come forth 
from their 
ra\"l's to appcar hefore 
the only, t1
e nugbty Goo. . That 
God may re\\ ard e,per}' soul accord 
ing to what it shall have dcserved. 
Vast not thine e) es on the good 
things which we have bestowed on 
several of the unbelievers, so as to 
covet the bame; neither be thou 
grieved on their account. 
If Ood should punish men for 
their iniquity, he would 1ì0t leave 
on the earth any moving thing. 





Dust thou art, anc
 unto dust 
shalt thou return. 
The merciful .doeth good to his 
own soul; but he that is cruel 
troubletll his own llesh. 
Not rendering evil for cvii, but 
contrariwise, blessing. 
C&.ll ye on the name of your gods, 
and I will call on the name of the 
I.ord. And they cried aloud. And it 
came to pass that there was neither 
voice nor any to answer. 
All that are in the graves shall 
hear his voice, and shall come forth. 
All nations shall be gathered be- 
fore him. 
But, beloved, be not ignorartt of 
this one thing, that one day is with 
the Lord as a thousand years, and 
a thousand years as one day. 
Go to, now, ye that say, To-day 
or to-morrow we will go into such 
a city, and continue there a year; 
and buy and sell and get gain: 
Whereas ye know not what shall 
be on the morrow. For that ye 
ought to say; If the Lord will, we 
shall live and do this or that. 
nut of that day and that hour 
knoweth no man; no, not the an- 
gels which are in heaven, neither 
the Son, but the Father. 

Out of the ground have we 
created you, 
nd to the same wi1l
we cause you to return. 
If ye d() well, ye will do 'Well to 
your own souls ; and if ye do evil, 
ye will do it unto the same. 
Turn aside evil with that which 
is better. 
And it shall be said unto the 
idolaters, call now upon those 
whom ye have associated with 
God: and they shall call upo
them but they shall not answer. 
And the trumpet shall be sounded 
again, and behold they shall come 
forth from their graves, and shall 
hasten unto the I.ord. 
But God will not fail to perform 
what he hath threatened: and ve- 
rily one day with the Lord is as a 
thousand years of those wbich ye 
Say not of any matter, I will 
surely do this to-morrow; unless 
thou add, If God please. 

They will ask thee concerning 
the last hour; at what time its 
coming is fixed 1 Answer, Verily, 
the knowledge thereof is with my 
Lord ; none shall declare the fixed 
time thereof except he. 

From the foregoing exalnples it will appear mani- 
fest, that the plagiarisms of the Koran are not limited 
to the leading facts and narratives of the Bible, but 
extend to many of its minuter peculiarities; to its 
modes of thought, its figures of speech, and even to 
its very forms of expression
 Yet, in several in- 
stances, we meet with such egregious blunders, as 
to plain matters of fact, stated in the sacred volume, 
as lllust convict the copyist of the most a!rant igno- 
rance, or of do\vnright falsification. Thus he makes 
the prophet Elijah (AI Kedr) contemporary with 


· 37 

'foses, I hmacl to have bprn Offi:1TCd in sacrifice in- 
stead of Isaa p , Saul to have led the ten thousand 
do\vn to the rivcr':; brink instead of Gideon, and, by 
thp Jllost nlun
tron.., ënlal"hroni
]n reprcscnt:-; '[ary, 
the lllother of .1 'sus, to h<l\ e becn the sanle pcrson 
" ith l\liric.lnl, the si-.;tpr of "'\fO:--e
'l'he palpable obligations of this spurious revela- 
tion to IIoly ""'rit, and the rcal or snpp()
ed inCOITI- 
petence of its nOll1inal fabrieator, ha\'e ycry natu- 
rally given birth to inquiries into the history of it') 
cOlnpusition. ']'he great lna

 of ,vritcr
 on '10- 
hanul1edanisln, follo'
 iug the opinion of the Eastcrn 
Christians, have gencrally agreed in supposing that in 
the l"on
trl1ction of the l\:oral1, the Prophct ,vas in- 
debted to the assi::;tance of one or lnore .accomplice
It is c('rtain, froul the pagcs of the" ork itsclf that this 
"'as objected to hiul at the outset of his career. "'\ e 
also kno,,- that they say, Verily a certain Jllan tí'acheth 
hinl to COJupose the l\:Orc.Ul." "And the unbelievers 
say, This J(oran is no other than a forgf\ry, \\"hich 
he hath cuntri,'ed: aud othcr people have assi::5tcd 
hinl therein: hut they utter an unjust thing and a 
falsehood." Uut this emphatip displainler of the 
Apo,;tle has f
iiled to produce conviction. The un- 
believers of Christelldoln have continued to side 
,vith those of :\Iec("a, d.ud as lnany as eight or tcn 
different pcrsons ha\re been designated as havin.
been, SOUle onc or more of therIl, associated \vith 
the Ï1npostor in the prolIlulgation of his cowlterfcit 
oracles. The more general b
licfhas been, that )10- 
hammC'ù repeived his principal aid from a N estorian 
n1011k, naulcd Sergius, supposed to be the SalTIC per- 
son as the Boheira, \vith ,,,hon1 he became ac- 
quainted at an early period of his life, at Bosra, in 
Syria. On this, the leanled Sale remarks: "If no- 
heira and Sergjus ,vere the f:;aUIC men, I find not the 
lrast intiInation in the l\lohan1nledan ,vriters, that 
he ever quitted his llionastf\ry 10 go into Arahia, 
and his acquaintance ,vith l\Iohanuued at llosra ,va



too early to favour the surmÌse of his assisting him in 
the }{oran, though Mohanul1ed might, from his dis- 
course, gain S01Ile kno"\vlBdge of Christianity and 
the Scriptures, ,vhich Inight be of some use to him 
therein." The saIne ,vriter, ho\vever, admits with 
Prideaux and others, that ,vhile Mohammed is to be 
considered as" 'the original projector and the real 
authqr of the Koran, he. n1ay have been assisted, in 
sOlne Ineasure, by others, though his successful pre- 
cautions of secrecy D1ake it iInpossible to det
at this day, by ,vhat agents, or to ,vhat extent, this 
was done. After all, the assertions advanced in 
respect to the part borne by others in the compo- 
sition of the Koran have never been authenticated 
by proofs, and the ,vhole story has the air of an 
hypothesis fralned to Ineet t
e difficulties of t.he 
case. And even were the popular belief on this 
question to be adll1itted, it ,vould not do away all the 
difficulties which ell1barrass the subject. For ,vho 
was capable, in that dark period, of producing such 
a work 1 This pretended revelation, indep
of its plagiarisms fron1 our Scriptures, contains pas- 
Rages as l11uch superior to any'rel11ains, "\vhether 
J e,vish or Christian, of the literature of the seventh 
century, as they are utterly inferior to the contents 
of that sacred volu111e which . the I{oran blasphe- 
mously assumes to resrunble and supplant. The 

hole subject, therefore, 
f the origin of this re- 
lnarkable book, ,vith the history of its cOlnposition, 
as 'v ell as th
 question ho,v far 1\10hall1med ,vas ac- 
quainted ,vith the Christian Scriptures, must doubt- 
less l'elnain an unsolved probleln to the end of tÎ1ne.. 
Of the literary D1erits of the I(oran, a fair esti- 
mate is not e
sily to be formed froln a translation. 
By those ,vho are acquainted ,vith the original, it is 
universally ackno,vledged to possess distinguished 
excellences, ,vhich 
annot be transfused into any 
other language. It is confessedly the standard of 
the Arabic tongue; is written, for the most part, in 

AP !)Fl\ï)l}.,. 


a purc and elcCTant style, abounding \vith hold figurcs 
aft(1r tIlt") uriental lllanUt>J"; aud ainuT1!.., at a concÌ
 ,vhich often renders it obs .urc. 'l'hough ".rit- 
tcn in prose, the scnteU("Ch usually c(J)lc-Iudc in a 
long- continued rhyu)(") for the 
ak(' of \\ hich, the 
scnse is often interrupted, and unn(' essary r lpeti- 
 introduced. 1'hi:; featurc of tilt' ('oInpositÌOII, 
though a di::;advantage and a deforrnity to a tran
tion, is on{> uf it
 superlative ('harrll
 in thc er-,tilnato 
of the llati\rc Arab
, ,,110'" \ ear is singularly 
ecpt ibl(' to the harmony of the. rhytluuical cadcnces 
"ith ,\"hit.h thp periods ("ollcludc. 
\\Thrtn "re pass fr0111 the IHflfC sound and diction 
,vhil"h 1nark " the pPfspicuous hook," it i
that its fille
t pa:5sa.!!cs are dc, oid of the 1l1(1rit of 
originality. Sir \Villiam JOIl('S relnarhs; "rI'hc 
}{or(lIl indcpd shines ,vith a Ù01TO\ved Jig-lIt, :,illce 
Ulost of it::; bcauties are taken frotH our :::; .ripCures ; 
but it has great hcauti('
, and t}lf

uhnano.; ,vill 
not be convinced that they are borro\\.cd." In de- 
scribing the luajcsty and the attribute,-; of God, find 
the vari(1ty alH} grandeur of the creation, it often 
rises to an ill1prcs
ive elevation; but in ahno:st every 
instance of this kind, it is evident that 
sage of inspiration of correfo\ponding iInport ,vas in 
the eye of the ".riter, and the copy is in\yariably in.. 
ferior to th(' orig-inal. . Yet thp rc-.;ult of a ("andid 
cxan1Ïnation of this pseudo-bible of 
even in our Eno-lish version, ,vonl<l probably he a Hlore 
favourahle i1npression of the book on the score of 
its composition, and a conviction that (unid the lTIul- 
titndc and heillousncs
 of its dcfect
, s(.arcely conI.. 
nlon justice had been done by Christian ,vriters 
either to the character of its Le
nlties, or the cxtent in 
\vhich they obtain. Taken ho\\.ever a'5 a ,vhole, 80 
rar from supporting its arrogant claims to a super.. 
human origin and eloquenec, it sinks belo,v the level 
of many confessedly hUlnan productions, to be found 
in -different languages and regions of the earth. 



" With occasional passages of real beauty and 
power, it is, on the ,vhole, a strange .1nedley, in 
which the subliInc is so nearly allied to the bom- 
bastic, the pathetic to the ludicrous, the terrible to 
the absurd, that each chapter, each page, almost each 
paragraph, is sure to give rise to the most opposite 
en10tions. Respect, conten1pt, adn1Ïration, abhor- 
rence, so rapidly succeed each other, in the perusal, 
as to leave no fixed or uniform iInpression on the 
nlilld. ,,* 

* Forster. 



2 1 

l D ] 

 co:'; FES
IO'i of .'AI CH; Tit \N
LA. fED FRO 1 

(From1\l0rgan's Mallomctism Explain d.) 
The articles. of our faith \vhich every 0'.0 II l\lus- 

uhnan is bound to b }licvo and to rC'('ci, e ,vith all 
entire a

Urluce are thirteen in nwubcr, urhereof the 
t and principal is, 
I.-GfGod's Existc cc. 
To bclif'Y{\ rluln the heart, to confess \\'ith th(' 
u(), and \\
ith a voluutary and ste(ldfast ßlind tu 
afiinn, that th
r{\ i
 but One only God, Lord and Go- 
vernor of tl1(' Hui,rcrsfì, ".lto produe ad all things fro} 1 
nothing, in ,vholn there is neith{\r ÏIuag-f\ nor r _ 
semhlallce, ,vho npv{\r hf'got any per:son \vhat:-)ocv(
as he hiulS --If" aç; hcgotton by none; ,vito, as he 
nc, er ,vas a SOIl, 8l) he llCVflf hath bC
ll a father. It 
is this Lord and So\rereigll ArLiter of alJ things 
honl "re )lu8sulmans are bound to :-;Cl
 c and aùore; 

o that nOlle 
llnullg n5 l11ay deviate frolll this arti- 
cle, but cvery one 11lUst Ïlnplint it dt.eply in hib 
heart; for it is unqne
II.-Of the l
'l"oplzet J.,faho/Jlet a/ill the Kú aIL. 
\,- e Inust believe froln our hearts and confess with 
our Inouths that the 1\lost IIig-h God, after having 
revealed hin1sclf to Inankilld by his anf'ient pro- 
phets, sent us at length his Elected, t he blessed 
l\lahomet, ,vith the sacred and divine la,,", ,vhich 
through his grace he had created, the ,vhich is con- 
tained in the venerable I\:oran, that hath been from 
him r.en1ittcd unto us. By this holy law it i
God hath abolished all the preceding ones, and hath 



,vithdrawn fronl their doubts and errors all nations 
and people in order to guide them to a firm and last- 
ing state of happiness. Wherefore "\ve are obliged 
exactly to follo,v the precepts, rites, and cerenlO- 
nies thereof, and to abandon every other sect or reli- 
gion whatsoever, ,vhether instituted before or since 
this final revelation. By this article ,ve are distin- 
guished and separated from all sorts of idolatry, lying 
rhapsodies, and false prophecies, and from all those 
sects, societies, and religions different frolD ours, 
which are either erroneous, abrogated, or exagger- 
ated, void of faith, and ,vithout truth. 
III.-Of Providence and Predestination. . 
We 111USt firmly believe and hold as a certainty 
that, except God himself\vho al,vays ,vas and al,vays 
shall be, every thing shall one day be annihilated, 
and that the Angel of death shall take to hÍlnself 
ouls of mortals destIned to a total and uni- 
versal extinction,'*' by the comlnand of Gorl, our 
. po,verful Lord and Master, ,vho was able and hath 
vouchsafed to produce out of nothing, and in fine to 
set in form this universal ,vorld, ,vith all things 
therein contained, both good and evil, s\veet and 
bitter; and hath been pleased to appoint t\VO angels, 
the one on the right, and the other on the left, to 
register the actions of every one of us, as ,vell the 
good as the bad, to the end that judicial cognizance 
may be taken thereof, and sentence pronounced 
thereupon, at the great" day of judgment. It is there- 
fore necessary to believe predestination: but it is 
not perrnitted to discourse thereof to any ,vhonl- 
soever, till after being- perfectly ,veIl versed in the 
study of our ,vritten la,v, viz. the I{oran, and of our 
Sonnah, ,vhich is our oral law'. Seeing then all 
things are to have an end, let us do good ,yorks, and 
deport ourselves so that we Inay live for ever. 

* Notwithstanding this annihilation, it is taught in the Koran that all 
intelligent creat.ures will be reproduced again at the resurrection. 



TV.-Of It Interrogation i tlte G .av . 
\\Te nlu
t t.ruly and finnly believe 
lnd hold a
-tain and as,",ured, the Interrogation of the sepulchre, 
,vhich will after rlpath he adn1Înistcred to every on · 
of us by hvo angels upon the
c four Ï1nportant quc
tions :-=-1. "Vho ""as our Lord and our God 
\Vho ,vas our Prophpt 
 3. "llich \\ as our TPli- 
gion 1 1. On ,vhat side ,vas our l{cblah 1 IIc \\"ho 
shan ht.:1 in a conrlition to make ans\\"er, that God 
"ras his only Lord, and 'laholn(1t hi
 Prophet, shaH 
find a grcat illumination in his tOITIh, and shall hiIn- 
self rc
t in glory. Rut h(\ ,,"ho shall not make a pro- . 
per an::nvcr to these question
 shall bc involved in 
darkness until the day of judglTIcnt. 
'T.-Of the Future Dissolution. 
'Ve Blust heartily believe and hold as certain, that 
not only bhall all things one day perish and be anni- 
hilated, ,iz. angels, BIen, and dcvils, hut like,,"i
this shall C0l11e to pa
s at the end of the ,,,"orld, ,,,hC'1l 
the angel I
rafil shall hlo\\'" the trurnpet in such 
sort that c"\.cept the Sover
ign Go(1 none' of the 
universal creation shall rClnain alive hnmediately 
after the dreadful noisl", ,vhich 
han canse tht1 monn- 
tains to treluble, the earth to sink, and the sea to be 
changed to the colour of blood. In this total extinc- 
tion, the last wl)o shall die \vill be A arael, the \n!5el 
of death; and the po\\"cr of the l\fost I-ligh God ,viII 
be evidently manifested. 

VI.-Of the Future Resurrection. 
'Ve are obliged cordially to believe and to hold for 
certain, that the first before aU others ,vhom God 
shall revive in heaven shall be the Angel of death; 
and that he ,vill at that tÏ1ne recall all the souls in 
general, and reunite thelll to the respective bodies to 



which each belonged;. some of ,vhich shall be' des- 
tined to glory, and others to torment. But upon 
earth, the first ,vhom God ,vill raise shall be our 
blessed prophet Mahomet. As for the earth itself, 
it shall open on all sides, and shall be changed in a 
n101nent; and by God's comlnand fire shall be 
kindled in every part thereof, ,vhich shall be ex- 
tended to its utmost. extremities. God will then 
prepare a vast plain, perfectly level, and of sufficient 
extent to .contain all creatures summoned to give an 
account of their past conduct. l\fay this solemn, 
definite, and irrevocable judgment a,vaken us from 
. our security; for to nothing that hath been created 
shall favour be showed. Every soul shall be judged 
there by the same rule, and ,vithout exception of 
VII.-Ofthe Day of Judgment. 
We must believe from our hearts and hold for 
certain, that there shall be a day of judgment, 
,vhereon God shall ordain all nations to appear in a 
place appointed for this great trial, of sufficient vast- 
ness that His Majesty Inay there be evident in splen- 
dour. I t is in this magnificent and spacious station 
that the universal assembly of all creatures shall be 
made, about the middle of the day, and in the bright- 
ness of noon: and then it is, that accompanied by 
his prophet (Mohamlned), and in the presence of all 
mankind, God shall ,vith justice and equity judge 
all the nations of the earth in generål, and every 
person in particular. To this effect, every one of 
us shall hav
 a book or catalog-ue of our actions de- 
livered to us; that of the good -in suc
 wise that it 
shall be received and held in the right hand; that of 
the wicked, so that it shall be received and held in 
the left hand. As to the duration of that day, it 
shall be as long as the continuance of the present 
age. . This shall be a day of sighs aBd griefs, a day 
of tribulation and anguish, ,vhen the cup of sorro,v 



and misery Inust be ÙrWlb. up, evcn the very dregs 
of. But this i
 "That shall be particularly ex- 
perienced by the ungodly aud the pervcrse; every 
hall present to theln ideas of sorro,\ and 
afiliction. 'ro thenl every thing shall becoIllt' aloes 
and bitterncbs. 'flu"'v shall not obtaill on InOJnent 
of repuse. They 
h(lll bchold nothin that is clgT(>e- 
able, nor hear one voice that shall dp light thenl: 
their eyes shall see nothing but the tornlents of hell; 
their cars shall hear nothing but the crí{':i and ho\\.l- 
iugs of ùe\.ils; and their terrified ÏInaginat ions shall 
represent unto them nothing" but :spcctrc

. 'TIll.-Of .
[(lholnet's Intercession. 
"Teare bound to bclievp, and hold as certain that 
our veneraùle prophpt 'laholll(.t shall "oith su(' "ess 
intercede for his people at the grcat ùay of e'Xalnina- 
tio}). 'rhis" ilI be thp first int
sion; but at the 
second, God \\Till be entirely relented, and all the 
faithful .\luSbulmans shall he transported into a state 
of glory, ,,"hile not one cxcus
 or supplication in 
behalf of other nations shall be acceptcd. .As to the 

 of pain ,\yhieh those among U
 are to un- 
dergo, ,vho have becn offenùers by transgressing the 
precepts of thp l\:oran, it is kno\vn to God alune, as 
there is none but IIÎ1n ,vho exactlykno,veth ho\\"lona 
the same is to continue, ,vhether its duration shall b
more or less than that of the examination or judg- 
ment. But to us it belongeth to shorten its con- 
tinuance by good ,yorks, by our charity, and by all 
the endeavours ,ve are capable of. 
IX.-Of the future C01l1pensation at the last Judglnent. 
'Ve must sincerely believe, and hold as a certaiJ?ty, 
that ,ve must everyone of us give up our accounts 
before God, concerning the good and evil we 
have transacted in this ,vorld. All ,vho have been 



follo,vers of Mahomet shall be before all others 
summoned to this exalnination, b
cause they it will 
be ,vho shall bear witness against all other strange 
nations. It shall con1e to pass on that day, that 
God \vill take away out of the balance of him ,vho 
has slandered his brother some of the good works, 
and put theln unto that of hÌ1n ,vho hath been slan- 
dered; and if the slanderer is found to have no good 
,yorks, he ,vill.then deduct from the punishment of 
the slandered, to. include theln in the list of those 
of the slanderer, insolnuch that his great justice will 
be fully luanifest. At least, then, that ,ve not run 
the hazard of this terrible compensation, let us not 
think. of wronging others, or of diminishing their 
substance, their honour, or their good name. 

X.-Of the Balance, .and of Purgatory. 
We.luust believe fron1 the heart, and confess with 
the lnollth, that all our actions, good and bad, shall 
one day be ,veighed in the balance, the one against 
the other, inson1uch that those whose good ,yorks 
out,veigh their bad shall enter into Paradise; and 
that, on the contrary, they ,vhose bad works shall 
out,veigh their good shall be conden1ned to the 
flames of hell. And for those whose scales shall be 
equally poised, because the good they have done is 
equi valent to the evil, they. shall be detained in a 
station situate in the middle, bct,veen Paradise and 
hell, ,vhere consideration will be made both of their 
merits and of their demerits, since besides their 
being confined in that place, they shall have no 
punishment inflicted on them, nor shall they enjoy 
any part of the glory ordained for the beatified 
righteous. It is true that all those among that num- 
ber who are Mussulmans shall be at length released 
from their captivity, and shall be introduced into 
Paradise at the second intercession of our blessed 
prophet Mahomet, ,vhose great compassion ,vill 



ignalized by his cngngino' in order to our re- 
denlp"tion, to supplicate the po,ver and thc mercy of 
the l\fost I-ligh, as ,vcIl as his justice, alrcady satis- 
ficd by the long captivity of the crin1Ìnals. \Vherc- 
forp let us from hCllcefor,vard "
eigh our good 
,vorks, to the end that ,,"c tnay a
sirluonsly strive to 
increa:se their ,\'eight, and that they Inay have the 
advantage over the bad. 

XI.-Of the Sharp-edged Bridge, and the 'unavoidable 
passage thereof. 
'Ve are obliged to believe from our hearts and to 
hold as as:sured, that all mankind in the "orld ll1USt 
pass one day over the Sharp-edged llridge, ,,
lenQ"th shall be pqual to that of this ,vorld, ,vhosc 
breadth shall not exceed that of one single thread 
of a spider's ,veb, and ,vho8e hcight shall bp propor- 
tionable to it::; extent. rrhe rig-hteous shall pa
s o"er 
it s,vifter than a flash of lightning; but the ilUpious 
and the ungodly, shall not, in as much tinlr as the 
present age shall endure, be ab!e to sunnoullt the 
difficulties thereof, and that through the ,vant of 
good ,yorks. I.'or ,vhich reason, they shall fall and 
precipitate themselves into hell-fire, in cOlnpany 
ith the infidels and blasphen1ers, ,vith those of 
little faith and bad conscience, ,vho have done few 
deeds of charity, because they ,vere void of virtue. 
'fhere shall be some t.unong the .good, noh\
iug, ,vhose passage shall be lighter and s,vifter than 
that of lllany others, ,vho shall therein meet ,vith 
temptations and obstructions from every precept 
,vhich they shall have ill-ob
erved in this life. Good 
God! how dreadflÙ to our sight ,vill this formidable 
bridge appear! 'Vllat virtue, ,vhat secret grace 
from the 1\lost High shall \ve not need to be enabled 
to pass over it 1 



XII.-Of Paradise. 
We are to believe and to hold for a certainty, that 
God did create a Paradise ,vhich he prepared for the 
blessed, from among the number of the faithful, by 
which are meant the follo,vers of the true religion, 
and of our holy prophet, l\lahomet; where with him 
they shall be placed in perpetual light, and in the 
enjoyment of heavenly delights; for ever beautiful 
in the vigour of their age, and brighter than the sun; 
and where they shall be found worthy to contem- 
plate and adore the face of the Most High God. As 
for those who shall be detained in the tortures of 
hell, to wit, the sinners and transgressors, who have 
nevertheless believed in one only God, they shall bß 
released at the second intercession of the prophet, by 
wholn they shall imlnediately be ,vashed in the 
sacred laver, from \vhence being come forth whiter 
than snow and more refulgent than the sun, they 
shall, with the rest of the blessed, behold them- 
selves seated in par
dise, there tò enjoy all the 
glory they can desire. This i
 what shall befall the 
body cOlnposed of clay; and ,vhat then shall be the 
state of our souls 1 To the ,vhich it shall be granted 
rnally to behold the light and brightness of the 
divine majesty. Let us then endeavour to do ,vorks 
of such a character, that ,ve may have no cause to 
fear hell-fire. Let us, I say, chiefly apply uurselves 
to good ,vorks, let us not refuse to exert our utmost 
strength in the exact observation thereof, and of the 
fast of our venerable mont.h of Ramadan, and of the 
prayers and cerelnonies ,,,hich are ordained; and 
let us not defraud the poor of a tenth of all our 
goods. . 


XIII.-Of Hell. 
We must sincerely believe and hold for certain, 
that there is a hell prepared for the unrighteous, the 
refractory transgressors of the divine law, accursed 



of God for thcir evil ,yorks, clnd for \Vh0t11 it \vould 
have been better hacl they lleVt'r have bf'en ùorn, and 
to have never f:>CCll the lig-ht of day. J t is for such 
 those that 
L place uf tOnllt'Ilt is rtppo111ted or 
rathcr a fire ,vhich hurneth ,vithout touching- thenl, 
a fif(
 of ice and north \\.inds, \\'h
rc thprc :-,hall bp 
nothing- but f:)nake:3 and scrpents, "rith other venOlll- 
ous and ravenous creatur
s, ,vhich 
hall bite thCI11 
,vithout destroying theIn, Hnf} Hhall causp t1U'1ffi to 
feel grievous pains. Ffhat place --hall be the abode 
of the impiou
 and of the tlevih;, ,vhere thf-se shall, 
\vith dll sorts of eruclty and rag-e, inec
santly tor- 
ture those; and lest the sensc of their pain should 
cause them to rrlt1nt, a ne,v 
kin shall continually 
succped in the stpad of that \vhich has uecn ùurned 
or mortifieù. It is for us ::\luE:'Sulolans to conreive 
and entertain it just horror of thi
 detcstahle place; 
such rellections arc lhe duty of (ill God's . rvants. 
As for tho..,e otl.ers ".hu have ùce}ared ,var arrainst 
our religion, thpy :jltall one ùay f
el the tormcllt
hell. Let us all dread this punislunent and these 
frightful terrOTS. T ,pt 11
 confirm uur faith by the 
scntilllcnts of our hearts, and by th
 confes::;ioll of 
our tong-nes, and let us euO'rave it in the bottOlß of 
our souls. 




[ E ] 


(Collected chiefly (rom Prideaux.) 

l,,-BUL F ARAGIUS; a physician of Malatia, in Lesser 
Arn1enia, of the Christian religion, and of the sect of 
the J acobites. He is a writer of distinguished note 
in the East,. both among IVlohalllmedans and Chris- 
tians. His Historia Dynastårum embraces the pe- 
riod from the creation of the "\vorld to the year of 
our Lord 1284. lIe flourished near the close of the 
13th century, about the time ,vhen his History ends. 
His work ,vas published in 4to at Oxford, A. D. 1663, 
,vith a Latin Version by Dr. Pocock. His entire 
nallle is Gregorius Ebn I-Iakin1 Abul Faragii. I-Ie 
is thus spoken of by Gibbon. " Yet in that long 
period some strangers of merit have been con- 
verted to the 1'vlonophysite faith, and a Je,v was the 
father of Abul Pbaragius, primate of the East, so 
truly eminent in his life and death. In his life, he 
was an elegant ,vriter of the Syriac and Arabic 
tongues, a poet, a physicjan, and historian, a subtle 
philosopher, and a llloderate divine. In his death, 
h:s funeral ,vas attended by his rival, the Nestorian 
patriarch, ,vith a train of, Greeks and Armenians, 
who forgot their disputes, and lllil1gled their tears 
over the grave of an enelny."* 
ABUL FEDA; an author eminently distinguished 
among the oriental writers for t,vo works well known 
among the learned; the one, a General Geography 
of the world, after the method of Ptolemy; the other, 

4< Decline and Fall, vol. v. p.508, Dublin edition, 1788. 



a G(\npral J I i
tory, ,,"hi,.h hp --.calls the EpitoJne of 
the IJi"'tory of Natioll
. ITt
 horn \. D. 1
and finished his Gcoo-raphy _\.. V. 13
I. 'l'\\"enty 
year'\ aft(\r\\ ani he ,va
 \.Hlvan("cd to th(\ principality 
of lIalnah, in Syria, frol11 \\ heJu.c he is cOlulHonly 
called Shallah l/alllllh, i. f'. prince (if llulltllh, \vhcn 
after" a reign of three YC:tr
 ancl h\"o 1110Uth:'5, he dieù 
A. D. 13.13, aged 
e' enty-t\,.o. I Ie ,va:) by nation a. 
TlUk, of the noble fauÜly of the Joliltc froB} \....}u("h 
also Saladin, the famous Sultan of .Egypt ,vas d:.. 
scenrled. Ec('hel('Il
lS quotc
 hÜn by the llallu a of 
[sl17ll.acl Sit .ahinshiah. 
AzAR; a lcg-endary,,"riter anlong the )IohaTn.. 
luedans, often quoted by IIottingcr. 
AGAR; the nalHe ùf a book of O"fC'at authority 
among- the 'Iu
sulrnalls, containing- an :H.eûunt of 
the life and death of 'lohaulI11pd: Johann "S _\u.. 
dreas ma
es great u
p of it under the name of \zaer, 
as does llellonius in the third uook of his Observa.. 
tions, under the naIne of ...\sacr. GuadaO'nl, ,vho 
had a ("oP} of the ""ork, dra\\ s frOll1 it the 1J1o
t of 
the particulars ,,"hich he objects a(Taill
t the life and 
actions of :\[ohalnn1ed. 
AH'IED EH:"l EDRIS; an author ,,-110 ,vrote in the 
defence of the 
lohan11nedan religion again
t the 
Christians and the .Te'v
USEPH; a historian ,vho flourished 
A. D. 1599, ,vh
n he l.ompleted his history. 
BS r 
; a noùlCluall of I
han, in Persia, of the sixteenth century, ,vho \vrotc 
one of the aputest ,vorks ag-ainst the Christian reli- 
gion and in defence of the :\[ohanlmedan, ever pub.. 
lished. Jernimo Xa"yicr, a Jp"uit 'Iissionary to the 
court of Ecbar, Great 
Iogu1, had "rritten ill the 
Persian language, t" 0 ,vorks in favour of Chistian- 
ity, one entitled, the lIistory '!.It' Jeslls Christ, eollected 
for the most part out, of thp ]pgends of the church 
of Rome: the other called aJ1 Looking-Glass of the 
Truth, intended as a defcnce of the Gospel against 



the Mohamnledalls. 'rhis latter ,vork, unluckily lor 
the author, soon after its publication, fell into the 
hands of the learned Persian Ahnled Ebn Zin, ,vho 
immediately,vrote an ans,ver to it \vhich he entitled, 
The Brusher of the LookÙlg-Glass. The college of 
the Propaganda at Rome ,vere so exceedingly nettled 
by the masterly manner in ,vhich their missionary's 
,york had been answered, that two Franciscan Friars 
were ordered each of them to prepare a reply to the 
rude Brusher of the Jesuit's l\-lirror. But as their 
arguments in defence of Christianity ,vere mostly 

ra,vn from the authorities of Popes and Councils, 
the palIn of victory wa
 fairly left in the hands of 
their l\loslem opponent. 
AL BOCHARI; an enlincnt Arabic ,vriter, who has 
given the fullest account of the Traditionary Doc- 
trines of the lVlohammedan religion. lIe is enlune- 
rated, by Johannes Andreas and Bellonius, alnong 
the six Mohamlnedan Doctors ,vho Inet by the ap- 
pointment of one of the Caliphs at.'Damascus in order 
to make an authentic collection of all the traditions 
\vhich compose their Sonnah. His ,york contains 
the Pandects of all that either to their La,v or 
their Religion, digested under their sever
l titles 
through twenty books, and from its antiquity and 
authenticity ranks alnong their sacred ,vritii1gs next 
to the Koran. He ,vas born at Boehara, A. D. 809, 
and died, Á. D,. 869. 
AL FRAGANI; an astronomer of Fragana in Persia, 
whence his name; which is at length Mohanul1ed 
Ebn Katir Al Fragani. He ,vrote a boo
The Elerlnents of .!lstronOlltY, \vhich has been several 
times republished in Europe, as at N urenlburgh, 
A. D. 1937; .at Paris, 1546; at Frankfort, CUlfi notis 
Christmanni, A. D
 1590, in Latin; and afterward 
by Golius in Arabic and Latin at Leyden, A. D. 
1669, ,vith copious notes extremely useful to a 
knowledge of the Geography of the East. He flou- 
rished under the Caliph Al l\1 aUlon , \vho died A. D. 833. 



_\r.. <;AZAL1; a faluous philo:sopher of 'fu:'\3. in 
ia. ] J p \\rrote nlany "orktS not unl) ill tl}(
partIllcnt of philosophy, l>u a]
o in ùcf >n .) of the 
.'lohalnnlcdan religioll ()g-ains1 Christian:-., .Tc,,
Pag-alls, a11(} eV{1ry ela

 of ullhl'lievl'r
. fhc JllO:st 
llott'(l of hi
 \\porks ic.; that C'ntit1f'd 11w D strllctirnl, 
'!.( J)hilosojJho.s, ,vriucn ag-ain:,t \ \'ieelllla aud other 
philosophers, \vho. in order to soh e the aÙ8urdities 
of J slalnisln. ,verf' for turning UltO fiCTurp dlUl alle- 
gory nUlnerous points of that religion \\ hi .h had all 
along been undcr::;tood literally. 'fhesc '\"ritcr
'"iulcl1tly oppo
, aC(.l1sin
. thf\ll1, on 
HTOWlt of 
c luy:stical intcrpretation
, of herf\sy and infi- 
delity, as corrupters of the faith dlHI 
uL\ prtcrs of 
rêlig-ion, for \"hich rt'a
on he had the honorary appc>l- 
latiolll>est o\vpd upon hinl of IT og-hatol I slanl Zainod- 
din, i. f\. The 1 )clIlonstration '!f .,11uh(/ lIl/ltcdunisln, and 
the IIullolir if Religion. He "was born A.I). 1 US8, and 
\. D. Ill:? II is nanlC at It'n
th is Abu llalllcd 
Ebn 'lohanullcd Al (;azali \1 'rU

ABI; (J historian born at Jannaha, a ('ity 
of Persia, ncar Rhiraz. IIis IIistory ()}..tcnùs do\\"n 
to the year of our Lord, 15tH', and in the course of 
it he inforIlls his rcader that he took a pilbrrimag-e to 
, and ,vent fronl thc>ncc 10 1\ledina, to pay his 
devotions at the tOlllb of thc Prophet, in that ycar of 
the IIejira ,vhich ans\vcrs to ...\. I). 155G. 
.AL I\:A
ILs; i. e. 1'he Ocean; a noted Arabic Dic- 
tionary, so called fron1 the ocean of ,vorò:-; ('on- 
tained in it. It ,vas \\ ritten by 
Iohalnlnccl Al Shi- 
razi Al Firau.labadi. lIe \\Tas a perSOll of great 
csteCJn anlong the princ
s of hi:-) tinlf', for his enli- 
nent learning and ".011h, ptlrtieularly" ith ISlnael 
\bbas, king of \.... Clnen, lletjazet, king of the 
'furks, and Taulerlane the Tartar, the last of ,\ hOlD 
Inade him a pre:-;ellt of tìve thousand pieces of gold 
at one tÍll1e. lIe \\ras by birth a Persian, born ...\. D. 
1328, but lived UIOfo.1ly at Sanau iH \-r CffieH of Arabia. 
lIe finished his Dictionary at 
lecca, and dedicated 



it to Ismael Ebn l\bbas, ,vhose patronage he had 
long enjoyed, and died at Zibit, in Arabia, A. D. 1414 1 
having attained nearly to the age of ninety years. 
AL !{ODAI; an Arabic historian. He ,vrote his 
history about A. D. 1045, and died A. D. 1062. 
AL l\IAsuDI; an 11Ïstorian. He is the author of a 
history called the Golden Meadows, but his era it is 
not possible no\v to discover. His name at length 
is Ali Ebn Housain Al l\laslldi. He ,vrote another 
,york also, ,vith the professed design of exposing 
the base fraud practised by the Roman Christians in 
Jerusalell1, in lighting the candles at the Holy Sepul- 
chre on Easter Eve. A full account of this vile im- 
position may be seen in Thevenot's Travels, Book 
ii., chap. 43. 
AL MOTAREZZI; the author of a book called Mo- 
grel; he ,vas born A. D. 1143, and died A. D. 1213. 
He ,vas of the sect of- the J\tlotazali, and seems by 
his name, Al Motarezzi, to have been by occupation 
a tailor, as that is the signification of the word in 
BEDA WI; one of the most distinguished of the 
con1mentators on the !{oran. He died A. D. 1293. 
a book \vritten in ...
rabic, containing a great many 
of the absurdities of the J\tlohammedan religion, in 
the form of a dialogue bet,veen the Impostor him- 
self, and the Jew ,vho ,vas supposed to have been 
his assistant in forging- the Koran. It ,vas trans- 
lated into Latin by Hennannus Dalmata, ,vhose 
version ,viII be found at the end of Bibliander's 
Latin translation of the !(oran. 
MAHOMETIS. 'rhis ,vork ,vas \vritten in Arabic by a 
Christian, ,\\Tho ,vas an officer in the court of a king 
of the Saracens, to a Mohammedan friend of his, a 
fello,v-officer ,vith him in t.he same court; and con- 
tains a confutation of Islan1Ïsln. Peter, the famous 
Abbot of Cluny, in Burgundy who flourished A. D. 



1130, caused it to be tran
]atca into Latin, hy Pcter 
of 'I'olpdo. ..\n ('piton1P of the ,\"ork 0 · .tUS in Bi- 
blialHlcr"f; J
EI..:u \rlr;U
, usnally ,vrittpll Er..,t \CIS; an Arahic 
author, ,vho hëL
 ,vrittcn a history of tlu"' Chri
f'ligion, "hieh 'xtends flOll1 the creation of the 
".orld to A. 1). IlIA. 'fht' lattt.r part of it, com- 
Inencing froln the rise of 'Ie >>hanUllcclanislIl, \\ras 
publishpd by Erpcniu..;, Ullel,'f th. title of lIistoria 

aral"elli(.a, A. I). 1 {j:!j. I Ie ,va
 sofi to ,,.. :1scr .AI 
An1Ïd, s )crC'tary of the council of ,var unùer the 
Sultans of Eg-ypt, of the fanlÏlyof Johi(tf', (lnd in 
the year 1
38, Elmaciu Slu"ct'ed)d his fathf'r to the 
same offic(', by ,\.hom it had hecn o('cupi('d for forty- 
fiye years tog-pther. IIi
 ,vholo n
llllC i:-ì Geor!Jius 
Ebn An1Ïd; but for his cHlincnt l('arning-, ,,,as styled 
Al Shai(.h .AI Rai
 Al ì\[a("in, i. i'. Thr IJrÏl" ])nrtor, 
solidly lcarned. By the llli5t of thesp titlf's, or J';hlla- 
cin, he' is gC'ncrally called hy l'
rpcnius; hut hy 
other:s he is frequput1y cited hy the Han1e of EVil 
ß:'i()II .L\THIII; a ::\roh:lmm..dan author, born \. D. 
11-19, and died _\. I). 1209. 
ALl EnxoIJ A THIR; an historian, hrothrr to the 
fonner, ,vho died A. D. 1232. lIis history, ,vhich he 
calls Carnel, extends froln the heginning of the 
,vorld to .the yC'ar of our Lord 1230. 
ASSAI; author of the book caneù Taarifat, 
or an explication of the various .Arabic tf'rnlS useù 
by philosophers, la,vyers, divines, anù other cl3.SSCS 
of the learned profe
sions among theln. 
EUTYCHIL"S; a Christian author, of the sect of the 
::\Ielchites, ,\
ho..;:e nanle ø in .Arabic is Said Ehn Ba- 
trike He ,vas bon1 at Cairo in E
rypt, A. D. 876, 
,vhere he becalne eminently distinguished in the 
medical profession. But to,vanl
 the lattcr part of 
his life, addicting himsplf more to the study of di- 
vInity, he ,vas A. D. 933, chosen patriarch of AIex- 
andtia, when he first took the namp of Eutychius. 



He died seven years after, A. D. 940. His Annals 
of the Church of Alexandria, ,yere published in 
Arabic and Latin at Oxford, by Dr. Pocock, A. D. 
1656, at the charge of the learned Selden. 
a most silly and frivolous Traet, ,vritten originally 
in Arabic, from ,vhich it ,vas translated into Latin by 
Hern1annus Dalmata, and published ,vith the Latin 
Koran of Bibliander. 
GEOGRAPHIA N UBIENSIS; one of the Inost noted 
Oriental ,vorks on the subject of geography. This 
title ,vas given it by Sionita and H esronita, 1\laron- 
ite Christians, ,vho published it in I-Aatin ,vith a geo- 
hieal appendix, A. D. 1619. But the Geographia 
N1lhiensis is ill faet only an abridgment of a 111uch 
larger and llluch better ,york, "\vrittcn by Sherif }i
Edrisi, at the cOlnn1anil of l
ogcr, king of Sicily, for 
the purpose of explaining a large terrestrial globe 
,vhich that prince had constructed entirely of silver. 
He c0l11pleted his ,vork A. D. 1153, and entitled it 
Ketab Roger, i. e. The Book of Roger, from the nallie 
of his patron. The author ,vas by extraction of the 
race of l\Iahomet
 and therefore called Sherif, the 
title appropriated to all the descendants of the pro- 
phet. There ,vas a beautiful copy of this ,york 
among the Arabic MSS. of Pocock. 
GEORGIUS l\ioNACHUS; Abhot of the monastery of 
St. Simeon. I-Ie ,vrote a tract in defenée of the 
Christian religion against the l\lohan1medans, in the 
fonn of a disputation held by hin1self ,vith several 
Mussulmans, of ,vholn the principal speaker ,vas 
Abu Salama Ebn Saar, of 1\Iosul. 
JAUHARI; the author of a noted Arabic Dictionary 
called Al 8ahah. He ,vas of Turkish origin, and 
died A. D. 1007. This dictionary is considered in- 
ferior only to the Kan1us. Golius, in his Arabic Lexi- 
con, has dra,vn largely from its resources. 
JAIJALANI; i. e. The two Jalals. They ,vere two 
individuals of the same name, ,vho ,vrote a short 



commentary on the Koran, ,,,hich was began by the 
first, and finished hy thf' 
ccond. 'rIH
 latter com.. 
pleted the ""ork A.. D. 1166, and ,vas author al
o of a 
history called 
wholastÍta ""ritcr of f"ol1siùt"\rable 
repute alnong the 1\lohalnnlcdans. I [(\ ""as born at 
Sharestan, \. T). 10j 1 alHI òic'd \. I). 1151. 
 author of a ,,"ork called AI 
}(eshaf; ,,"hich i
i,"(; comlncntary on the 
Koran, the In05t highly ebteelncd 
llllong the '10" 
halTIlnedans of any \vork of this kind. lIe died 
A. D. 1143. 


treatise in the Greek lang-l1age ,vritten dg'ainf-'t the 
l\lohalnmedan reli!{iou, puhlishcd by Le )Ioyne 
among his Varia Sarra. Thl 1 author ,vas (l nlonk 
of Ede.;;sa in \1 :)
opotall1Ïa, hut in ,,-hat age he lived 
is unkno "9U. 
t 'rARO:\TF.TICA:\f.- 
This ,vork cOlltain
 four apologies for the C'hristian 
R,eligion, and four orations against the :\lohammf1- 
dan. 'fhe author had been Clnpf'rOr of COll,;tanti- 
no pIe, but having- resigned his clupire to John Pale.. 
ologus, his son-in-Ia\,r, 
\. 1>. I:J5:;, he retired into a 
monastery, accolllpanied by one ::\lcletiu", ,,,,hOl1l he 
had converted fronl the 
tohammedan to the Chris.. 
tian faith. 1'he \\rork no\v 111entioned 'vas "Titten 
leletius in ans\ver to a letter addressed to him 
by Sampsates, a Pen-ian of Ispahau, ,vith a vie,v tq 
reclailll him, if possible, again to the religion of 
DIUl\I HISTORL\RU'\I.- \ ,vork em.. 
bracing a ('oncise history of all ages from the cre- 
ation of the ,vorld to the year of our Lord 1057. 



CONFUTATIO MAHOMETIS.-A Greek tract published 
by Le l\1:oyne in his Varia Sacra; author unkno,vn. 
of the Byzantine historians, containing a chronolo- 
gical history of the Ron1an Empire, froln the year 
of our Lord 285 to A. D. 813. The author ,yas a 
nobleman of Constantinople, ,vhere he held an of- 
fice of distinction in the iInperial court, but after- 
\vard retiring froln public life and secluding himself 
in a monastery, he wrote this history. He died 
A. D. 81!'j in prison, in the island of Salnothrace, a 
martyr to his zeal for i1nage-,vorship, for which he 
,vas a most strenuous advocate in the second coun- 
cil of Nice. 
the series of the Byzantine historians. It contains 
a history reaching from the creation t.o the death 
of Alexius Comnenus, enlperor of Constantinople, 
,vhich happened A. D. 1118, 'v hen the author flou- 
rished. He ,vas at first a person of distinguished 
rank in the court of Constantinople, but aftpr\vard 
becoming an ecclesiastic, he ,vrote the history no,v 
mentioned, and was author also of a celebrated 
Comment on the Greek Canons. 


CLENARDI EPISTOLÆ.-The author of these epis- 
tles ,vas the famous gramlnarian of his age. Urged 
by his high opinion of the literary treasurps locked 
up in the Arabic language, he ,vent to J:
ez, A. D. 
1540, on purpose to lnake himself Inaster of this in- 
valuable tongue, and that at an advaneed period of 
life. From this place he wrote the epistles above- 
mentioned, containing a n1inute account of the n1an- 
rs and religion of the l\lohammedans. lIe died 
at Granada in Spain, immediately after his return. 



Rln_\TIO AI.COR \:Sl.-'rhp author of thi
book ""as t.he (.clcbr
ltpd :\ieolas de Cusa, the 1110:,t 
elniupnt s -holar oi the age in ,,"hich ht' lived. J Ip 
,\'as luadl' Cardinal of HOJt1f', ,A. D. 1-118, ,yith t}u.... 
title oi S . ])cter's a vincula" and died A. ]). 1-1G.I, 
ahout t('n yt'ët1 s aftf'r the capture of onstantinoplf' 
by the 'furks. 'l'his C\"Cllt gave DC .a
ion to the 
,,'ork, in ,vhieh h(\ aiffipd to provide an antidotl' to 
that baneful religion \\ hich he s
nv ,,-as no\\r likely 
to overspread a g-rcat p
rt of 1hristendoll1. 
\BR.\H.\:\lI ECl;IIEI.E:\"SIS IhsToHIA ,ARAut;,r.-This 
""ork is subjoined by the author to his C.hronico 
Oricntale, (.ull(.C'ted out of th(\ \rahi(Þ ,,"ritf'r:-;. Ec- 
ehelensis " a::; a 
laronitp of ::\lount Libanus in :,vria, 
and ,vas: elnployrd as Profp"'
ur of thp Ori;'lltal 
I ,anguage
 in the Collpge J)e })ropaganda F
iJe, at 
ROlne, froln ,vhpnee, ahuut the ypar Hj 10, hp "3R 
called to Pari:-;, to;t in the publi(.ation of the 
great Polyglot Bihle, anf} \\"as there Blade thp king"s 
Ploft:'ssor uf Oripntal Lang-uag-cs in the {'ollpp:e of 
that city. JIis part, ho,,"p\.er, in the p:\ccution of 
that great "
ork ""as f";aid hy sOffiP uf the d(H.tor
orhoJlnc to ha\.e done hinl little credit. JIis 
inaccllral.ies ""ere almost infinite, and 
h a
evinc(\ that hi::; judglllcnt calue far short of his cru- 
.-Of this 
yaluable ,\.ork there are t".o editions; the first of 
A. D. 1651; the srrond, mlH.h enlarged, of A. D. 
1660. r-rhe author "Tas Professor of Oriental I,an- 
guages, fir
t at Zurich in S,,"itzt)rland, and aftcnvard 
at Ilpirlclburgh in I folland. rrOJll this place he ,vas 
called to a sin1Ïlar Profes
orship at Leydpn, but ".as 
unfortunately dro,vncJ. in the Hhine during his re- 
moyal thither. I-Iottinger ,,,,as a man of alnazing 
industry and of vast learning; but froln having 
'" ritten so luuch ill so short a compass of tinIc, for 
he died YOlmg, his ,vorks ,vant that accuracy ,vhi



the maturity of a fe,v more years in the author ,vould 
have given them. As it is, they are all useful. 
METANÆ.-The author of this work was formerly an 
.B.lfaki, or doctor of the l\iohamlnedan La,v; but in 
the year 1487, being at Valencia in Spain, he "ras 
converted to Christianity, and soon after received 
into holy orders; ,vhereupon he ,vrote this treatise 
in Spanish against the religion which he had aban- 
doned. From the Spanish, it was translated into 
Italian A. D. 1540; and again into Latin in 1595, and 
reprinted by V oetius at Utrecht in 1656. His 
thorough kno,vledge of the suBject enables him to 
manage the controversy ,vith a force and pertinency 
which has since been rarely equalled. 
PococK.-The celebrated Professor of the Hebrew 
and Arabic tongues at Oxford; for piety and learn- 
ing one of the brightest ornanlents of his age. He 
,vas born A.D. 1604, and died A.D. 1691. For up- 
wards of sixty years he was a constant editor of 
useful and leanled ,yorks, connected for the most 
part ,vith the history or literature of the East. His 
most valuable, though by no means his most exten- 
sive, ,vork is the Specimen Historiæ .!1rabicæ, pub- 
lished A. D. 1650, which Mr. Gibbon thus signifi- 
cantly characterizes in one of his notes :-" Consult, 
peruse, and study the SpecÏ1nen Historiæ Arabicæ ! 
The three hundred and fifty-eight notes form a 
classic and original work on the Arabian antiqui- 
ties."* Again," the English scholar (Pocock) Ull- 
derstood more Arabic than the Mufti of Aleppo."t 
author of this very valuable tract ,vas a Dominican 
friar, ,vho in the year 1210 went to Bagdad ,vith 
the sole purpose of studying the Mohammedan reli- 
gion out of their o,vn ,vritings, in order the more 
successfully to confute it. This learned and judi- 

If Decline and Fall, vol. v. p. 13

t lb. vol. v. p. 228. 



 trpatise was the fruit of hi
 foreign rcsid('nce, 
,,'hich he publishcd upon his return. 1t" a
Jatf\d fHHIl th{' T 
atin into Greek b) I)eJlIetriu
uills for the eX-l'mpcror Canta .U7.t}II(', "ho }rlaJ..('
gn'at Uf-;P of it, ò(1riving- fnun it \\ hatcvcr is of Blost 
real value in hi
 four Urations against the :\Tollftlll- 
11ledan religion. J'rOlTI thifo, (;n}(
k ver-...iOll of ') <10- 
HillS it \va
 re-translated into Latin by Pìf.enns. and 
d in thp l..atin J\'oran ûf Hihliandcr. 'fhis is 
all "e no". have of it, th(' original LeinO" lost. 'fhis 
tract of llichard, and that of JohalUlt'S \ndrf\as ht
fure n1
))tioncd, ".rrp the ahle:-;t ,,-hieh had b' 
,vrit1l'Il hy l:uropeans in the ::\lohalnn1f'dan cun- 
troversy pr 'vions to tho
f' of the Hf\v. IJ('ury 'Iartyn, 
,,-hich ,,-ere ori.
i)Jally puhli
h('d in Pf\r
ian, and 
havc sine I be '11 translated into Engli
h hy Prof. L 'e 
of Can1oridg-('. 
a hi:-}tol}' of the Saraet'lJs fron} tIle birth of )lohan1- 
d to the year of our Lord 11;)0. 'rhf' author ,vas 
oòeri(>, .Archbishop of 'rol
do, in f'pain, "ho ,vas 
ellt at tht' Latfirall Council in 1:!13. II is his- 
tory, frolll the tenth chapter, i
 mOfo\tly ('onfilH'ù to 
the '-'ara(.cns of Spain, ,,-hf\re his accounts Inay he 
gf\nC'ral1y relied on; but little credit, it is 
aid, i
to hilll ,\-herevcr he follo,,

 them uut of the bounds 
of the Peninsula. rrhe ,,-ork ,,-as published \vith 
EI1)cnius' lIistoria Saracenica at Leyden, \..D. IG25. 



J. & .J. ITARPER, Ne,v-York, have in press, and 
,,'ill shortly puhlish, the rpnlaining volnnlcs of the 
Fan1Ïly IJibrary, ,,'hich ,,,ill be executed in strict 
uniforIuity of style \vith the present part of the 

'fIlE IIIS1'ORY OF TIlE JE'VS: Xos.l. II. & III. 
By the neVe II. IT. 
I:lnlan. In 3 vols. 18mo. 
Illustrated ,yith original 'laps and '\

The foHo\\ in
 nre but a fpw of the numerous t{'
timnni('! of appro- 
bation wlJich 1\lr.l\Jilman's History of the Jews has received in Europe. 
· The Editcn I' 
 most fortunate In en
 on this work the 
 of a IICholu J 
hoth cl3.lllical and scriptural, and !IO elec;-ant and po\"erful a \\ riter. at the Poetry Pror
Fe\" theolo,:ical \\ orb of thil order have appeared either In ours or in any other lan
To the Chri
ti:m reader or every acre and lex-and we may add or e\"ety sect-it will be a 
lOul't'e of the pUl'Pst delight, instruction, ani] comrort; and or the infi"f'11 who oprn it 
Int-rely that thev may not remain in iV\clWlce or a work placed by 
neral Mnlent in the 
rank or an }
nr\io;h classic, is there not f'\ery reuon to hope that many will lay it down in 
a fa.r difr
rt:nt mood ?"-Blad:wood'. 
U Though the subject is trite, the manner of t
 it is such as to commAnd our iJet>peSt 
attention. \Vhile the \vork has truth and lIimplidty eno\Jj1;h to fascinate a child, it is 
"ritkn with a m:uterlint'SS of the subject and an ele
nce of compoøition that ,\ ill please 
tLe Ulost refined and fastidious reader. "-Edinb. Saturday" Pod. 
" It cannot help bein
 one of HI"" most deep'., interesting works of the day: it Is Inn.- 
Jual!le to tbe Chnatiaø IIcholar."-ß&nn. JoumuJ. 
"The most popular history or tile lIOns or IsT:\
1 tha.t has hitherto been published. The 
I'tighest enconiulß we can pass upon the \\ork undf'r noti('e is to u
e ita purd1alC) from a 
ccn\"irtion of itl striking and penn anent worth. "-.Ber1uhire Chronicle. 
"The work is 'idminbJy adapted for the batruchon of )outh."-Sht..tJ'Wd CouTant. 
ce'Ve are acquainted with nO work" hÏ<'h we can more heartily I1'COmmend to r,ur 

; to tht: youlIl1;t'r part of them especially, \\ e are lure it will prove a nlOst accepta.LJe 
nt."-L(teTary Gautle. 
&( The narrati\"e or the various and highly interesfin
 e\"ents in that period flow!! on in a 
cha.!lte style; and a U:oMur;h kno" ledKe or hilllUbJ
ct is e\."ident in e\"E'f)
. The \York 
is spirited, well arrn
etI, anJ full of ilÚonuatlon, nd or a wise and well cultivated 
" It il not too much to say, tktt to the Christian reader, of e\"ery 
 and sex, it wi1l be 
a !9'Jurce of the purest deJight, instruction, and romfort. .'-CorA .
.:.lhern Rtporter. 
"It is one of those rare pu}.l:-::ationtl which unitf' all the attTaction or novelty, and aU the 

auties 0" finishec1 and IIpirited compositlon.-'Ve cannot close without .tron
ly recom 
 the Histon. of tbe Jews 3.5 a "ork e'1ually cnteTtai
int to 
e and jnstrurti
f' to 
)0\4tl1, alike acceptable to the ignonDl, and to be peruS4::d with pleasure by the leamea." 
T1j11Jt. }ltr"'ry. 

s. IV. & V, ,vith. copperplate Engravings, anû 
\' oodcuts from desIgns of G. CRUIKSHANK. },"roln 
Hie 2d London Edition. Neatly bound in canvas. 
2 vols. 
"'Ve ãntici
a!e a prodigious circulation for this attractive work. It is 
n up with 

te ablllty.-Imleed, we have seldom }Jerused a wÛJ'k more uniformly interesting 
lb it!> detalls."-Sun. 
"'Ve are plca
ed to find that each succeedmg nunmer of the Family Library if worthy 
Ct.f the promise vl
hlally he
d out by the elep;ant appearance of the f.rst numbenz, ami the 
literary talent which they d.splay.- The present is amoug the most interesting of those that 
ha....e yet appeared."-
Manchcster Courier, 
.,W e are ,very 
 to see that this 'York has reached a second edition. It is a very 
htful piece of biography, and constitutes onl} of tlJ.e best works for the Library with 
which we are acquainted."- Yorh:Jhire Gazette. 
" The first .volumes of this work secufp.d for it the atlentio";} and p1.tronag-e of the puù1ic; 

nd .the .
ontmued ability displayed in these t!ucceedin
 numbers, has gamed it an intro- 

lIeth)ll mto most of the' family librarif's,' not only in t
n:riall(\ Lut in Europe. Suitin
Itself t
 the hardship of the timl's, t1mt work is published in a '.)rm and at a price which 
rer-der It ac,::essible to all clasg
 of the'l'eading pub1ic."--S1lffolk Herald. 
"Aftl'r the merited pr
ise that has a1ready been given to this work, it cannot be supposed 
that \Ve.!lave any thing particularly original ta offer respectin
 it. \\r
 are glad to find that 
the pubuc have duly appreciated itll merits, and that a new editien bJ.s been called (nr." 
B1"i.,vtol Min"or. 
"The g-reat history, alw3V1 intelesting-, \Vas never better told. The w}lOle work 18 
J1ighly creditable to the autÞol' 
d publishers. As it deserves, it 113' already reached a 
æcond edition."-Kent Herald. 
"So great has been tÞe avíi)ì!y ,...ltJ.1 which the two first volumes or the Family Liùrary 
have been bought UI', that it 
 Oeen found necessary to republish them."-Man. Courirr. 
"or the' Lire of N3pol
n n',oTl:\parte' ''In lInusua1Jv lar
e impression \\-:\s speedily 
ta 1 Jecl hr; and a new edition, romuiting of ten thousand copies, has just appeared. This 
little work has been justly 1:I.l.ìtlf'J hf all r ..'ties, for the tone of g-ra\"e and 
enerous candour 
which it maintain... throu
ho\it. it is, in truth, a masterly epitome of all that has been 
proved to be true, cOlJcf'rnin
 the career of the most extraordinary lUan of the last thousanu 
years."-Cork Sauthern RefKJt'tt,r. 
.c It is writtrn with gTeat jud
JßelJt, c1earues!'l, and conciseness, and lea\-es nothing to be 
wished for, either in the matter or manna' J{ its composition."-Jolm Bull. 
 by the prenent l'pecimen. the' Faln
ly Library' nltut become a fa\"ouite to a1ï 
classes, and benefit 8()ci
ty ir'lener . ."-Birmmgham Journal. 
"These v
lumes may mfely br- committed to the hand of youth, by whom tbf'Y win be 
strongly relilihed for the amazing interest, ....ariety, and f
\lness of the details."-SW1. 
" It seems to us to be a book which' must take,' and we heartily wish it a11 the lIuccess 
it merits."-Durham Count'l/ Ch"onicle. 
""\-Ve never met witb more 8nliù infonn:l.tion compressed within so sm1.11 a space; and 
!'et the brevity of the style never funs into obsCLrity. On the contrary, we should be much 
at a loss to point out fluch another specimen of narrative c!earncs!, III the who!e range of 
contempoJ':\ry literature. Two volumes so rich in inforr.:ation ant.! interrst, so much t.o be 
devoured by y')uth, and 110 worthy to be consulted by fh/-' maturest r
at.!pr, would const,ltute 
certainl}' one of the cheapest of all possibie cileap hooks. Of a work alrea.Jy!!o whle_lv 
known If would be ridioolous to multiplv specimens in these pagt's; but one }I:tSS3!!;f' will 
be complained of by nn one; 'Nunc legan! qu
 nunquam lee;eballt, quiq1\e 1

t nUIiC 
ICj<)'1t.' \Ve ha\-e readeri! m rep;ions to which even !h
 cheapest bo.oks do, not easIly fi
their way-and in m1.nyan InJi:m cantonment the stnkme; paJa
r:tpus which fQllo\V will 
be perused ror the fll'St time on ou.r pages."-Blackwood's .Magazme. 
"This is a much better book than any othcr in English on the s;une sub.:ect." 
" JltT1mæum. 
cc We need scarce1y express the pleasure this work has afforded us."-Gent.'J Mag. 
IC A publication or such high merit cannot be too extensively circula
Glasgow Fra Ere. 
"This is a book that musl be popular. "-Sc.'1tøman. 
"Mo5t confiJenUy do we recommend it to our rearlen."-Q.1:(ord Hera1!. 

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